Highligts
On the following links you will find some highly qualified websites on English Grammar, including parsing sentences:
Grammarpedia UCL-English Grammar

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Irene Droppert
English - Modern Greek
Vlaardingen-The Netherlands

There are two groups regular verbs viz.:

  • Active verbs in the present tense, ending on «-ω»
  • Passive verbs in the present tense, ending on «-ομαι»

The verbs in this group don't have an accent on the ending of the verb

The first conjugation - A

Are divided in 4 categories with different aorist stems:

Categorie 1

When the stem of the active verb in the present tense ends on a vowel, «-ν», «-θ» or «-ζ», the aorist stem of this verb will end on «-σ» and of the passive verb on «-στ» or «-θ».

stem
active
stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
active verb aorist active aorist passive meaning
vowel -σ- -στ-/-θ- ακούω άκουσα ακούστηκα to hear
αναλύω ανάλυσα αναλύθηκα to analyse
-στ-/-θ- πιάνω έπιασα πιάστηκα to grip
ψήνω έψησα ψήθηκα to bake
-θ- -στ- αλέθω άλεσα αλέστηκα to grind
-ζ- * -στ- σκίζω έσκισα σκίστηκα to tear

The verb «ιδρύω», belonging in abovementioned category, has a devious ending of the passive participle, «-μένος» instead of «-σμένος» as zoals the other verbs.

Category 2

When the stem of the active verb in the present tense ends on, «-κ-», «-γ-», «-χ-», «-χν-», «-γγ-» of «-ζ-», The aorist stem of this verb will end on «-ξ-» and the pasive verb on «–χτ-»

stem
active
stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
active verb aorist active aorist passive Meaning
-κ- -ξ- -χτ- διδάσκω δίδαξα διδάχτηκα to teach
-γ- ανοίγω ανοίξα ανοίχτηκα to open
-χ- ελέγχω έλεγξα ελέγχτηκα to control
-χν- ψάχνω έψαξα ψάχτηκα to search
-γγ- σφίγγω έσφιξα σφίχτηκα to embrace
-ζ- κοιτάζω κοίταξα κοιτάχτηκα to look at

The verbs «διδάσκω» and «ελέγχω» have two passive aorist endings i.e. the abovementioned on «-χτ-» and the more formal on «-χθ-», thus «διδάχθηκα» and «ελέγχθηκα».

Categorie 3

When the stem of the active verb in the present tense ends on, «-π-», «-β-», «-φ-», «-πτ-» of «-φτ-», the aorist stem will end on «-ψ-» and the passive verb on «-φτ-»

stem
active
stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
active verb aorist active aorist passive meaning
-π- -ψ- -φτ- παραλείπω παρέλειψα παραλείφτηκα to leave out
-β- σκάβω έσκαψα σκάφτηκα to dig
-φ- αλείφω άλειψα αλείφτηκα to smear
-πτ- καλύπτω κάλυψα καλύφτηκα to protect
-φτ- βλάφτω έβλαψα βλάφτηκα to damage

«παραλείπω» is the only verb with a devious ending of the passive participle, «παραλειπόμενος», whilst the remaining verbs get the ending «-μμένος» for the passive participle.

The verbs «παραλείπω» and «καλύπτω» have two passive aorist endings, the abovementioned with «-φτ-» and the more formal with «-φθ-», thus «παραλείφθηκα» and «καλύφθηκα»

Categorie 4

When the stem of the active verb in the present tense ends on « –αυ-» or «-ευ-», the aorist stem of this verb will end on «-αψ-» or «-εψ-» resp. «-ασ-» or «-εσ-» and the passive verb on «-αυτ-» or «-ευτ-»

stem
active
stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
active verb aorist active aorist passive meaning
-αυ- -ασ-/-αψ- -αυτ- παύω έπασα παύτηκα to stop
-ευ- -εσ-/-εψ- -ευτ-/ευθ δουλεύω δούλεψα δουλεύτηκα to work
δεσμεύω δέσμευσα δεσμεύτηκα to bind, tie

The verb «παύω» has a passive participle, «παυόμενος». It has two aorist forms, i.e. «έπασα» and «έπαψα», of which the lastmentioned is used the least often. Furthermore it has two passive aorist forms, with the abovementioned «-αυτ-» and the more formal, with «-αυθ-» («παύθηκα»).

The active verbs with the stem ending on «-ευ-», «δεσμεύω» has two passive aorist forms, the abovementioned «-ευτ-» and «-ευθ-» («δεσμεύθηκα»).

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As said before the regular verbs are divided in two groups, the abovementioned A-group and:

category 1
  • Alle active verbs ending in the present tense on «-ώ (-άω)» *
  • Passive v rbs ending in the present tense on «-ιέμαι»

* This group of verbs has two forms i.e. on «-ώ» and the alternative form on «-άω». They are derived from th Acient Greek and are conjugated according the verb group ending on «-άω».

category 2
  • All active verbs ending in the present tense on «-ώ»
  • Passive verbs in the present tense ending on «-ούμαι»

The second conjugation- B

stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
verb
active
aorist
active
aorist
passive
meaning
-ησ- -ηθ- Category 1 *
αγαπώ αγάπησα αγαπήθηκα to love
ρωτώ ρώτησα ρωτήθηκα to ask
βροντάω βρόντησα * to thunder
Category 2
αξιολογώ αξιολόγησα αξιολογήθηκα to evaluate
ομολογώ ομολόγησα ομολογήθηκα to admit

* «βροντάω» is a active verb without a passive voice. Another verb with the same meaning exsist viz «βροντώ», with another conjugation (see below). The active forms in this category have two conjugations, namely in the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous and the perfect tenses of the indicative mood. The same applies to the present tense and the perfect tense of the subjunctive, the present tense singular of the imperative and the aorist singular and plural of the imperative. Only «αγαπάω, αγαπώ» has two conjugations for the participle viz «έχοντας αγαπήσει» and «έχοντας αγαπημένο» of which the latter is rarely used. In the passive voices of boths the verbs, «αγαπάω, αγαπώ» and «ρωτάω, ρωτώ», viz «αγαπιέμαι» and «ρωτιέμαι» double conjugations occur in the plural forms of the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous, the perfect tenses of the indicative mood and the aorist of the subjunctief (see the conjugation of the two verbs in both links above).

The verbs in category 2 «αξιολογώ» and «ομολογώ» belong to a large group of verbs, including i.a.: «αδικώ» - to be wrong, «διατηρώ» - to maintain, «ενοχλώ» - to bother, «εξηγώ» - to explain, «μισώ» - to hate, «υιοθετώ» - to adopt, etc. They have two perfect participles, of which the one ending on «μένο(ς)» is least often used.

stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
verb
active
aorist
active
aorist
passive
meaning
-εσ- -εθ- /
-εστ-
Category 1
φορώ φόρεσα φορέθηκα to wear
πονώ πόνεσα -* to ach
Category 2
εξαιρώ εξαίρεσα εξαιρέθηκα to except
τελώ τέλεσα τελέστηκα to execute

* «πονάω, πονώ» in category 1 does not have a passive voice. The active form of this category has two conjugations i.e. in the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous and the perfect tenses of the indicative mood. The same applies to the present tense, the perfect tense of the subjunctive and the present tense singular of the imperative. In the passive form van «φοράω, φορώ» - «φοριέμαι» double conjugations of the plural forms occur in the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous, the perfect tenses of the indicative mood and the aorist of the subjunctive (see the conjugations of both verbs on the above links). Verbs with the same conjugation as «φοράω, φορώ» are a.o. «βαράω, βαρώ» - to hit, strike, «καρτεράω, καρτερώ» - to wait patiently, «χωράω, χωρώ» - to contain.

The active forms in category 2 «εξαιρώ» and «τελώ» have the same conjugations, though the conjugation of the passive forms differs: «εξαιρούμαι» and «τελούμαι».

stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
verb
active
aorist
active
aorist
passive
meaning
-ασ- αστ- Category 1
γελώ γέλασα γελάστηκα to laugh
ξεχνώ * ξέχασα ξεχάστηκα to forget
ανακλώ ανάκλασα ανακλάστηκα to twin

The verb «γελάω, γελώ» in category 1 follows the same conjugation pattern as
* «ξεχνάω, ξεχνώ», of which the stem ending is on «-ν». This letter is omitted in the aorist of the active and passive voices and in all other forms depending on it. The same applies for the verbs «κερνάω, κερνώ» - to offer, «ξερνάω, ξερνώ» - to vomit en «περνάω, περνώ» - to pass, in this group.

The verb «ανακλώ» belongs to a small group with the same conjugation in the active and passive voice. (look at the link above for the extended conjugation)

stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
verb
active
aorist
active
aorist
passive
meaning
-ηξ- -ηχτ- Category 1
τραβώ τράβηξα τραβήχτηκα to pull
Categorie 2
βροντώ * βρόντηξα -* to thunder

«τραβώ» has the same conjugation in the active voice as «βροντώ». The passive voice differs: «τραβιέμαι»

* The meanings of «βροντώ» and the abovementioned «βροντάω» are the same, only the conjugations differ, viz. «βροντάω» and «βροντώ». Both the verbs have no passive voices.

stem
active
aorist
stem
passive
aorist
verb
active
aorist
active
aorist
passive
meaning
-αξ- -αχτ- Category 2
κοιτώ κοίταξα κοιτάχτηκα to look at
πετώ πέταξα πετάχτηκα to throw

* «κοιτάω, κοιτώ» and «πετάω, πετώ», verbs of category 2, ofwhich the stem ends on «-τ» have two conjugations, viz in the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous and the perfect tenses of the indicative mood. The same applies to the present tense and the perfect tense of the subjunctive, the present tense singular of the imperative and the aorist singular and plural of the imperative. The two conjugations of the participle are for «κοιτάω, κοιτώ» - «έχοντας κοιτάξει» and «έχοντας κοιταγμένο», and for πετάω, πετώ» - «έχοντας πετάξει» «έχοντας πεταγμένο». In the passive voice of boths the verbs double conjugations occur in the plural forms of the present tense, the imperfect, the future continuous, the perfect tenses of the indicative mood and the aorist of the subjunctief (see the conjugation of the two verbs in both links above).

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