Lionas Bay

Lionas a very quiet bay on the Cyclade island Naxos.

Dancing during an afternoon meal.


On the following links you will find some highly qualified websites on English Grammar, including parsing sentences:

UCL-English Grammar
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Irene Droppert
Dutch - Modern Greek
Vlaardingen-The Netherlands

With the exceptions of a few irregular forms there is only one way to derive a corresponding adverb from an adjective. The word endings of the obtained adverbs are «-α» and «-ως».

Adverbs ending on «-α» are equal to the neuter plural, viz the 1st and 4th case of the corresponding adjectives.

This type of adverb is obtained from adjectives endings (masc., fem. & neut.) on:

  • «-ος, -η, -ο» (incl. passive past participles)
  • «-ος, -ια, -ο»
  • «-ύς, -ιά, -ύ»
  • «-ης, -α, -ικο»
  • 1+2. Some adverbs of the adjectives ending in «-ος»:
fiercely άγρια
mercilessly αλύπητα
slowly, late αργά
sweetly γλυκά
strongly, loudly, aloud δυνατά
in vain μάταια
orally προφορικά
rarely σπάνια
specificially συγκεκριμένα
cheaply φτηνά
poorly φτωχά
separately χωριστά

Some adjectives ending in «-ος» have alternative adverbs with the ending in «-ως

  • 3. Some adverbs of the adjectives ending in «-ύς»:
deeply βαθιά
heavily, gravely βαριά
far away βαθιά
  • 4. Some adverbs of the adjectives ending in «-ης»:
jealously ζηλιάρικα
sullenly κατσούφικα
coquettishly τσαχπίνικα
A few examples in sentences are:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Και βέβαια θα το κάνεις. But of course I'll do it.
Γιατί νιώθω ξαφνικά τόσο μεγάλη. Why do I suddenly feel so old.
Αυτό δεν κοστίζεις φτηνά. That will cost you dearly
Μείνε μακριά απ’ τον άντρα μου. Stay away from my husband.
Ποσο βαθιά περπατήσαμε στο δάσος; How far (deep) did we walk in the wood?
Τους κοιτάχτηκε ζηλιάρικα. He enviously looked at them.
Tον θεωρείται και πολύ κατσούφika. He is considered extremely surly.
  • Abovementioned adverbs are derived from the following adjectives:
  • «βέβαιος» - assured, certain, confident, sure
  • «»ξαφνικός» - sudden
  • «φτηνός» - cheap, inexpensive
  • «μακρύς» - elongate, long
  • «βαθύς» - deep, thorough, profound
  • «ζηλιάρης» - envious, jealous
  • «κατσούφης» - surly, stern

So this type of adverbs is formed from the neuter plural, i.e. the 1st and 4th case of the correponding adjectives.

Adverbs with the ending «-ως» are formed from adjectives with the endings
«-ης, -ης, -ες»

These adjectives have two endings viz «-ης» for masculine and feminine and «-ες» for neuter. The stress of the derived adverb will be placed on the same syllable as on the adjective in the 1st case of the masculine singular, with the exception of adjectives ending on «-ώδης» on which the accent is shifted to the last syllable.

ελληνικά αγγλικά
Δεν ξέρω τι ακριβώς έχει μέσα. I don't know exactly what's in it.
Δυστυχώς είναι πολύ αργά γι' αυτό. Regrettably it is too late for that.
Ευτυχώς έχει εσένα να τον βοηθάς. Thankfully he has you to help him.
Είναι εμφανώς αρκετά παλιό. It's obviously very old.
Ιδεωδώς αυτός ο άνθρωπος θα ήταν κατάλληλη. Ideally this person would be appropriate.
Συνήθως αυτό δεν είναι πρόβλημα. Usually that's no problem.
Όλοι εδώ δουλεύουν πυρετωδώς από την τελευταία στιγμή. Here everybody is working very hard until the last minute.

Mentioned adverbs have been derived from adjectives on «-ης» and «-ες»:

  • «ακριβής» - accurate, correct, exact, punctual
  • «δυστυχής» - unhappy
  • «ευτυχής» - felicitous, happy
  • «εμφανής» - conspicuous
  • «ιδεώδης» - ideal
  • «συνήθης» - customary, wonted, familiar, habitual
  • «πυρετώδης» - febrile, feverish, hectic

These adverbs have the accent on the same syllable as on the corresponding adjectives, except for «ιδεωδώς» and «πυρετωδώς», which are formed from «ιδεώδης» and «πυρετώδης» whereas the accent is shifted to the last syllable as mentioned in above explanation about «-ώδης».

As said before some adverbs ending in «-ως» are derived from adjectives ending in «-ος».

Above has already been mentioned that adverbs are formed with the ending in «-α», derived from adjectives ending in «-ος». Together with the following alternative adverbs, ending in «-ως» double adverbs arise, like, zoals:

  • «βέβαια-βεβαίως» - of course, certainly
  • «άσχετα-ασχέτως» - regardless, irrespectively
  • «άδικα-αδίκως» - unjustly
  • «σπάνια-σπανίως» - rarely, seldom
  • «κύρια-κυρίως» - mainly
  • «ίδια-ιδίως» - especially, in particular
  • «απόλυτα-απολύτως» - complete

They hardly differ in meaning and use. In the «-ως» forms a shift of the stress takes place from the antepenultimate (3rd syllable from behind) to the penultimate (the second syllable from behind). In the past the use of these adverbs was more or less limited to the katharevousa (learned language), but now they are being used more often, on the one hand because the various nuances of writing and style are facilitated and on the other hand in the more formal text for specific style reasons and to avoid confusion when they are mentioned in a sentence in the neuter nominative and accusative plural with a neuter adjective, ending in «-α», the ending «-ως» is preferred.

The meaning of the next sentences for instance may cause confusing:

«δύο συνημμένα σπάνια έγγραφα»
(«συνημμένα» may be considered as an adjective)
two attached rare documents
«δύο συνημμένως σπάνια έγγραφα»
(with «-ως» it is clear that the adverb is intended)
two enclosed rare documents (in the envelope enclosed) two rare documents
«δύο σπάνια αρχικά νομίσματα»
(«σπάνια» may be considered as an adjective)
two rare original coins
«δύο σπάνιως αρχικά νομίσματα»
(with «-ως» it is clear that the adverb is intended)
two rare original coins (rarely occurring) original coins

Sometimes the meaning or usage differ between the two types. A few examples:

adverb meaning description adverb meaning description
αδιάκριτα indiscreetly immodest way αδιακρίτως immodest way without distinction
ακριβά expensive the price ακριβώς precisely in time
άμεσα directly without mediation αμέσως immediately, instantly without delay
απλά simply simple way απλώς merely only way
έκτακτα marvellously nice time εκτάκτως extraordinarily pre-programmed
έξοχα brilliant excellent εξόχως capitally predominantly
ευχάριστα pleasantly aangename stemming ευχαρίστως gladly with eagerness
ιδιαίτερα particularly mainly ιδιαιτέρως especially above all
ίσα equally ditto ίσως perhaps, maybe perchance
κακά bad evil way κακώς mistakenly wrong
καλά good good way καλώς good not wrond, okay
περίεργα curious, nosey curious way περιέργως remarkably unexpectedly surprising
τέλεια perfectly excellent way τελείως completely entirely

Some examples in sentences:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
He/she took some simple measures. Πήρε μερικά απλά μέτρα
She was perfectly in his opinion. Ήταν τέλεια κατά τη γνώμη του.
The atmosphere at the party was pleasant Η ατμόσφαιρα στο πάρτι ήταν ευχάριστα
Remarkably she/he went home early. Περιέργως πήγε νωρίς σπίτι.
Καλώς ήρθατε στην παρέα μας. Welcome in our company.
Τώρα θα ήθελα ευχαρίστως να έχω την απάντηση. Now I would like to have the answer.
Πρέπει να φύγεις αμέσως.> You have to go immediately.
Καλώς ή κακώς, η Επιτροπή είχε υποβάλει προτάσεις. Good or bad the Commission has made proposals.
Η Σάρα είναι τελείως ανίκανη να κάνει αυτή τη δουλειά. Sarah is fully qualified to do that job.
Ίσως πρέπει να μιλήσεις στο αφεντικό γι'αυτό. Maybe you should talk with the boss about this.
Απλώς θα περιπλέξει τα πράγματα. It will only make things more complicated.
Είναι κυρίως μια βάση εκκίνησης. It is mainly a base to start.
Αυτό αφορά ιδίως στη διάρκεια του προγράμματος. This is particularly true for the duration of the program.
Αυτό δεν είναι απολύτως αλήθεια. That's not quite true (absolutely not).

There are some exceptions in forming adverbs and there are adverbs that don't fit in any category, e.g.:

From the adjective «άλλος» - other, another the adverb «άλλο» - differently, otherwise, other, else is formed. This adverb doesn't fit in any category and is only used in interrogatory sentences, expressions and commands. When forming this word the neuter singular of the adjective is used, instead of the 1st and fourth case plural, as mentioned above. It is also an equivalent of the pronoun «άλλος» - another. Furthermore a relative adverb «αλλιώς» - else, otherwise exist:

κάτι άλλο something else
τίποτα άλλο; anything else?
κάθε άλλο! not at all!
δίχως άλλο at any rate
χωρίς άλλο absolutely
Έχεις κι άλλο γι 'μένα; Do you have more for me?
Πόσοι άλλοι θα έρθουν; How many others come?
Έτσι και αλλιώς εγώ θα πάω. I'll go anyway.
Πρέπει να πάμε σπίτι, αλλιώς θα αργήσουμε. We have to go home, otherwise we're too late.

The adverb «μόνο» - mere, only, simply, solely has been derived from the adjective «μόνος» - alone, only, single. Again the neuter singular of the adjective is used. This adverb also doesn't fit in any category. It is an equivalent of the determiner and pronoun «μόνος» - alone, by oneself :

απλά και μόνο quite simply
έγω και μόνο γταίω I alone am to blame
έτσι και μόνο έτσι that's the only way
Του έκανα τη χαρή μόνο και μόνο I did him only a favor.
θέλω μόνο ένα σάντουιτς για μεσημεριανό. I only want a sandwich for lunch
Δεν μπορώ να το κάνω μόνος μου. I can't do it alone.
μόνος κι έρημος lonely and abandoned
Η μόνη μου ελπίδα είναι εξαφανίστηκε My only hope dissapeared

«το ίδιο» - as much (equivalent of the pronoun «ο ίδιος»), doesn't fit in any other category:

Είναι περίπου το ίδιο. It's about the same.
Εσείς ο ίδιος το είπατε. You have said it yourself.
Τα παιδιά μου είναι το ίδιο μου το αίμα. My children are my own flesh and blood .
Αυτό μου είναι ακριβώς το ίδιο. That's quite the same for me.
Ήρθε με το ίδιο του το αυτοκίνητο. He came with his own car.

The adverb «λίγο» - a little, little, slightly has been derived from the adjective «λίγος» - little by means of the neuter singular.

Θέλεις λίγο από αυτό το κρασί; Do you want a little of this wine?
Τρώω λίγο. I don't eat much.
Πάρε λίγο τα χέρια σου απ'το τραπέζι! Take you hands off the table for a moment!
Μου δίνεις λίγο το ποτό μου; Pass me my drink please?

The adverb «πολύ» has been formed from the neuter singular of the adjective «πολύς» - much has the adverb «πολύ» - very, much:

Το έγινε πολύ πριν τον καιρό σου. It happened far before your time.
Δεν αργήσαμε πολύ, μόνο πέντε λεπτά. We were not that late, only five minutes.
Δουλεύεις πολύ, θα αρρωστήσεις. You work too much, you will become ill.
Ήπιαν πολύ χθες το βράδυ. They drank a lot yesterday evening.

Adjectives on «-ύς, -εία, -ύ» are given the «-έως»-ending in adverbs. These adverbs are hardly used and the corresponding adjectives only appear in technical and formal texts and sometime in standard expressions.

Enkele bijwoorden zijn:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
βαρέως - (adj.: βαρύς) heavily, weightily
βραδέως - (adj.: βραδύς) leisurely
ευθέως - (adj.: ευθύς) directly, straight
ευρέως - (adj.: ευρύς) abroad, widenly, largely
ταχέως - (adj.: ταχύς) promptly, quickly, rapidly

Some old greek adjectives were formed from active participles. Although they are admittedly very rare with an «-ων»-ending, but they sometimes appear. Following the masculine, feminine and neuter form-endings:

  • «-ων, -ουσα, -ον»
  • «-ων, -ώσα, -ών»
  • «-ων, -ούσα, -ούν»

Examples of the adverbs on «-ως», derived from these adjectives

ελληνικά αγγλικά
Το κείμενο είναι αρκούντως ακριβής. The text is sufficiently precise.
Πες του πως ο Γιάννης πρέπει να τον δει επειγόντως. Tell him that John urgently need to see him.
Σ' είμαι πολύ ευγνωμόνως για την πληροφορία σου. I am much obliged for your information.
Πώς είναι ο Γιάννης, παρεμπιπτόντως; How is John by the way?

The adjectices of which these adverbs are formed:

  • «αρκούντων» - enough, sufficiently
  • «επείγων» - exigent, instant, urgent
  • «ευγνώμων» - beholden, thankful, grateful
  • «παρεμπίπτων» - incidental

Just like the adjectives, the adverbs have three forms, the positive, the comparative and sometimes the superlative. The two ways to create them, are the same as with the adjectives, the single-word way or the descriptive way. The positive degree is equal to the neuter plural of the adjective in the 1st and 4th case. With the word «ποι» (formally πλέον) preceding the positive degree the comparative is formed in the descriptive way and with «-τερα» as suffix in the single-word way. The superlative is formed in the one-word way with the suffix «-τατα» added to the positive degree and preceded by the word «-πολύ» in the descriptive way.

The adverbs, obtained from adjectives formed with the comparative in the one-word way, also have the comparative and the superlative (one-word)

Most adverbs of manner, derived from adjectives, form their one-word form in the same way, but with an «-α». As an alternative the positive degree (the basic form) may be used, preceded by the word «-ποι», to express the comparative degree.

Some examples of regular adverbs:

Positive Comparative one-word Comparative describing Superlative
Superlative describing meaning
ακριβά ακριβότερα πιο ακριβά πολύ ακριβά dearly
ακριβώς ακριβέστερα πιο ακριβώς ακριβέστατα πολύ ακριβώς exactly
απλά απλούστερα πιο απλά απλούστατα πολύ απλά simply
αργά αργότερα πιο αργά πολύ αργά late, slowly
βαθιά βαθύτερα πιο βαθιά βαθύτατα πολύ βαθιά deep
γενικά γενικότερα πιο γενικά γενικάτατα πολύ γενικά generally
επιεικώς επιεικέστερα πιο επιεικώς επιεικέστατα πολύ επιεικώς leniently
εύκολα ευκολότερα πιο εύκολα ευκολότατα πολύ εύκολα easily
καλά καλύτερα πιο καλά άριστα πολύ καλά good
σπάνια σπανιότερα πιο σπάνια σπανιότατα πολύ σπάνια seldom
συνήθως συνηθέστερα συνηθέστατα normally
σύντομα συντομότερα πιο σύντομα συντομότατα πολύ σύντομα soon
συχνά συχνότερα πιο συχνά συχνότατα πολύ συχνά often, frequently
τακτικά τακτικότερα πιο τακτικότατα πολύ τακτικά frequently, regularly
φρόνιμα φρονιμότερα πιο φρόνιμα φρονιμότατα πολύ φρόνιμα judiciously
χαμηλά χαμηλότερα πιο χαμηλά χαμηλότατα πολύ χαμηλά low, beneath
ψηλά ψηλότερα πιο ψηλά πολύ ψηλά high

   From all the abvementioned adverbs, except «συνήθως», the comprative can be formed alternatively by placing «πιο» in front of the basic form.

Because adverbs do not normally form a superlative, the comparative forms are sometimes used in stead.

However when the expression as.... as possible is used, a phrase of «to» plus neuter singular of the adjective's comparative form is used, a.f.:

Μπορείτε να μου στείλετε τον αριθμό εγγραφής σας το συντομότερο. Can you send me your registration number as soon as possible.

A few examples of iregular adverbs

Positive Comparative one-word Comparative describing Superlative
Superlative describing meaning
γρήγορα γρηγορότερα πιο γρήγορα το γρηγορότερο fast
ιδίως ιδιαίτερα πιο ιδίως ιδιαίτατα πολύ ιδίως special, particularly
λίγο λιγότερα πιο λίγο ελάχιστα πολύ λίγο little, few
μπροστά μπροστύτερα πιο μπροστά πολύ μπροστά before
νωρίς νωρίτερα πιο νωρίς πολύ νωρίς early, soon
πολύ περισσότερο/πιότερο πιο πολύ το πιο πολύ much, many
πρώτα πρωτύτερα πρώτιστα/πρωτίστως first
ύστερα υστερότερα πιο ύστερα later

The single-word comparative forms «περισσότερο» and «λιγότερο» of the the adverbs of quantity «πολύ» and «λίγο» are the only adverbs of quantity that can be used in the comparative degree.

An adverb of manner may be modified by another adverb (as it may modify an adjective)

ελληνικά αγγλικά
πολύ καλά very well
πάρα πολύ καλά very well (stronger)
πιο καλά better
πολύ καλύτερα much better
κάπως καλύτερα somewhat better
λίγο καλύτερα a bit better
τρεις φορές καλύτερα three ttimes better
λιγότερο καλά less well
αρκετά καλά quite well
φοβερά καλά terribly well

The adverbs of place, whether derived from adjectives or not, are often preceded by «πιο» so as to obtain the comparative degree:

adverb of place comparative degree meaning
κοντά πιο κοντά close
ψηλά πιο ψηλά high, long
εδώ πιο εδώ here
πάνω πιο πάνω up
μέσα πιο μέσα inside
μπροστά πιο μπροστά before
πέρα πιο πέρα further down or along

More adverbs of place:

  • «αριστερά» - left
  • «δεξιά» - right
  • «μακριά» - far
  • «χαμηλά» - beneath
  • «εκεί» - there
  • «κάτω» - below
  • «έξω» - outside
  • «πίσω»- behind
  • «χάμω» - down, on the ground
  • «πέρα» - beyond

* «τουλάχιστο(ν)» - at least

Examples of the degrees of comparison of the adverbs:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Πρέπει να έχει τα μέσα να ζει πιο καλά. One must have the resources to live better.
Είμαι βαθύτατα απογοητευμένος με την απόφασή του. I am deeply disappointed by his decision.
Καλύτερα αργά παρά ποτέ. Better late than never.
Πρέπει να διαβάσουμε αυτό το εγχειρίδιο ακριβέστερα We have to read this manual more punctually.
Πιο πολύ απ 'όλα θα θυμάμαι τα γέλια της. Most of all, I will remember her laughtern.
Αυτό το εστιατόριο είναι ιδιαίτερα καλό. This restaurant is particularly good.
Θα μου τηλεφωνήσεις αργότερα; Can you call me later?
Θα ήταν πιο εύκολα αν ήσουν εκεί. It would have been easier if you were there.
Ίσως να μας επισκέπτεσαι πιο τακτικά τώρα Maybe now you can visit us more regularly.
Πιστεύω ότι είναι το λιγότερο που μπορώ να κάνω. It seems to me that it is the least I can do.

Of all the abvementioned adverbs, except «συνήθως», the comparative degree can be formed alternatively by placing «πιο» in front of the positive degree.