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An adverb gives extra information to a sentence!

 

In MG, the adverbs are indeclinable, but like the adjectives they also have degrees of comparison!

We are dealing with:

Adverbs are words which can modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, nouns, numbers and amounts. They give us information on concepts as place, time, manner, quantity or number, confirmation or denial and hesitation.

The following table various characteristics of adverbs are reproduced:
  • 1. Adverb of manner:
English Greek
He only speaks Greek. Μιλάει μόνο ελληνικά
They speak together. Μιλούν μαζί.
She always speaks clearly. Πάντα μιλάει καθαρά.
This music is somewhat bizarre. Αυτή η μουσική είναι Κάπως παράξενη.
More adverbs of manner
English Greek
otherwise, else αλλιώς
so, thus έτσι
At all, not at all, none καθόλου
somewhat, rather, somehow κάπως
together μαζί
only, solely μόνο
just as όπως
however, somehow, howsoever, anyhow οπωςδήποτε
how (interrogatory) πώς
 
  • «κάπως» and «καθόλου» are also adverbs of quantity
  • none of the abovementioned adverbs has a comparative and superlative degree
  • «αλλιώς» and «έτσι» are the opposite of each another
  • after «μαζί» a weak personal pronoun may be placed e.g. «σου», then it means with you. With the preposition «με» it means together with ...
  • 2. Adverb of place:
English Greek
Where is the shop? Πού είναι το μαγαζί;
There is the shop. Το μαγαζί είναι εκεί.
I found the book nowhere. Δεν βρήκα το βιβλίο πουθενά.
I searched everywhere. Έψαξα παντού.
More adverbs of place:
English Greek with pers.pron. with prep.
else, elsewhere αλλού
between ανάμεσα ανάμεσά τους ανάμεσα (σε)
opposite απέναντι απέναντι σας απέναντι (από/σε)
to the left αριστερά
about, around, round γύρω γύρω του γύρω (από/σε)
to the right δεξιά
beside, by δίπλα δίπλα σου δίπλα (σε)
here εδώ
there εκεί
ahead, forward, onwards εμπρός
outside έξω έξω (από)
just about, somewhere κάπου
to the bottom, below, down κάτω κάτω (από)
about, close κοντά κοντά της κοντά (σε)
inside μέσα μέσα μας μέσα (από/σε)
before μπροστά μπροστά της μπροστά (από/σε)
where οπού
wherever, anywhere οπουδήποτε
throughout, all over παντού
top πάνω πάνω μας πάνω (από/σε)
beyond πέρα
back, behind, aft πίσω πίσω σας πίσω (από)
next πλαί πλαί του πλαί (σε)
where (interrogatory) πού
nowhere πουθενά
down, on the ground χάμω
high, aloft ψηλά
 

«μπροστά» also means be present as in:

  • «ήταν μπροστά» - they were present

As shown in the above, a weak personal pronoun or a preposition can be placed after some adverbs.

  • 3. Adverb of time:
English Greek
When will he come? Όταν θα έρθει;
He will come tomorrow. Θα έρθει αύριο.
Come here immediately. Έλα εδώ αμέσως.
This year we will stay there. Φέτος θα μείνουμε εκεί.
Adverbs of time, expressing a point in time
English Greek
in the past, another time, once άλλοτε
immediatly, at once αμέσως
this evening, tonight απόψε
late, slowly αργά
tomorrow αύριο
afterwards, then, έπειτα
at last επιτέλους
already, by now, by then ήδη
once, sometime κάποτε
by now κιόλας
the day after tomorrow μεθάυριο
after μετά *
barely, just, narrowly, scarcely μολίς
early, soon νωρίς
whenever όποτε
whereupon οπότε
whenever οποτεδήποτε
last year πέρσι/πέρυσι
when (interrogatory) πότε
afore, previous, ago πριν *
two years ago πρόπερσι
the day before yesterday προχθές
first, firstly πρώτα
today σήμερα
then τότε
now τώρα
later ύστερα
this year φέτος
yesterday χθες
next year του χρόνου
 

* When «πριν» and «μετά» are uses as an adverb the meanings are afore en later

  • «Πρέπει να το κάνεις πριν». - you have to do it earlier.
  • «Θα το κάνω μέτα». - I'll do it later.

When «πριν» and «μετά» are denoting a distance in time there are three different ways to describe the same thing e.g.:

He came a month ago

  • Ήρθε πριν από έναν μήνα.
  • Ήρθε έναν μήνα πριν.
  • Ήρθε πριν έναν μήνα.

«ποι πριν» also means before, previously


He left one week later

  • Έφυγε μετά από μια εβδομάδα.
  • Έφυγε μια εβδομάδα μετά.
  • Έφυγε μετά μια εβδομάδα.

but «μετά» a.f.:

  • «Θα φύγει μετά ένα χρόνο» - He/she will leave in a year's time.
Adverbs of time expressing frequency:
English Greek
ever καμιά φορά
(three)times (τρεις) φορές
sometimes κάπου κάπου
sometimes πότε πότε
seldom σπάνια
commonly, usually συνήθως
often συχνά
frequently, regularly τακτικά
 

An adverbial clause expressed with the word «κάθε» - each, any in combination with the above adverbs:

  • «κάθε πόσο» - how often
  • «κάθε τόσο» - from time to time
  • «κάθε φορά» - each time
  • «κάθε Σάββατο» - each Saturday

Some adverbs such as «σπάνια», «συνήθως», «συχνά» en «τακτικά» have comparatives and superlatives degrees, with the exception of «συνήθως» which has only a comperative degree.

More adverbs of time:
English Greek
still, yet ακόμα
never ουδέποτε
always, constantly όλο
ever, forever πάντα
again πάλι, ξανά
no longer, no more πια
more, already πλέον
ever, never ποτέ
 

«ακόμα» is also an adverb of quantity.

«ουδέποτε» differs in use from «ποτέ», because it's a negative adverb that can be used with a positive verb.

  • 4. Adberb of quantity:
English Greek
You are getting nowhere, you earn too little. Δε θα φτάσεις, κερδίζεις πολύ λίγο.
It's quite well Eίναι αρκετά καλά.
I meet John almost every morning. Σχεδόν κάθε πρωί συναντάω ο Γιάννη.
I learned the lessons entirely. Έμαθα τα μαθήματα τελείως.
The main adverbs of quantity:
English Greek
enough, quite αρκετά
least, remotely ελάχιστα
equally, evenly εξίσου
none, not at all, not nearly καθόλου
quite κάμποσο
just about, rather κάπως
a little, little, slightly λίγο
less, at least λιγότερο *
further, quite, rather μάλλον
as long as, as much as όσο
as much as, as long as οσοδήποτε
about, much about πάνω κάτω
too much, near πάρα
about, pretty much περίπου
more περισσότερο **
very, much πολύ
more πιο
how much (interrogatory) πόσο
just about, nearly, almost σχεδόν
ompletely τελείως
that, so much, thus much τόσο
at least τουλάχιστον *
 

* «λιγότερο» is the comparative degree of «λίγο», similarly as «τουλάχιστον» and «ελάχιστο» (look here for degrees of comparison )

** «περισσότερο» is the comparative degree of «πολύ»

Examples of adverbs with various characteristics such as doubt, affirmation and negation
  • 5. Adverb of doubt:
English Greek
Maybe I'll go on holiday. Μήπως κάνω διακοπές.
He ostensibly does not know, she's coming. Δεν ξέρει δήθεν οτί θα έρθει.
Possibly I have a job. Πιθανόν να έχω δουλειά.
Perhaps I can't see you this afternoon. Ίσως να μη μπορέσω να σε δω το απόγευμα.
  • 6. Adverb of negation:
English Greek
No, he's not home. Όχι, δεν είναι στο σπίτι.
Don't speak to him when he drives. Μη του μιλάς όταν οδηγεί.
You don't get that. Δεν πάρεις αυτό.
And you don't get that either. Και ούτε πάρεις αυτό.
  • 7. Adverb of affirmation:
English Greek
Sure that's positive. Μάλιστα, αυτό είναι θετικό.
We are definitely going to the theatre. Βέβαια πάμε στο θέατρο.
Yes, of course I'll come at eight! Ναι, βεβαίως, θα έρθω στις οκτώ!
Indeed, well answered! Πράγματι, σωστά απάντησες!

The adverbs don't only modify phrases and clauses to indicate the relation of time, place, manner etc., but they also qualify the significance of what is said, without any relation.

1. The modification of a verb through adverbs of manner, place, time and quantity:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Σας βοήθησα καλά. I helped you well.
2Δουλεύω εδώ. I work here.
3Σας βοήθησα χθες. I helped you yesterday.
4Δούλεψα πολύ. I worked a lot.
  • The adverb clarify the way in which the verb distinguishes itself in sentence 1.
  • In the second sentence the adverb indicates the location.
  • The sentences 3 and 4 express time and quantity.

2. The modification of the adjective or another adverb through adverbs of manner, time and quantity

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Η γιορτή ήταν καλά οργανωμένη. The party was well organized
2Το αμέσως επόμενο βήμα είναι να περιμένει. The immediate next step is to wait.
3Αυτό το είπαμε από τότε κιόλας. We have already said that at the time.
4Αυτό είναι αρκετά σωστό. That's enough correct (that is true)
  • The adverbs in the sentences zin 1 and 2 give information about the adjectives «οργανωμένος» and «επόμενος»
  • «Τότε» and «κιόλας» in sentence 3 are both adverbs of time and in this case «κιόλας» reinforces the tendency of the phrase more than as if it was not mentioned.
  • «Αρκετά" in sentence 4 is an adverb of quantity that says something about the adjective «σωστός».

3. The modification of the pronoun through adverbs of place and time

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1η πρώην σύζυγός του his ex (his former wife)
2η παραπάνω παράγραφος the above paragraph
3ο πρώην πρωθυπουργός The former Prime Minister
4η πίσω πόρτα the behind door

Adverbs of time and location in short adverbial clauses with a noun are placed between the article and the noun where they act in a sense as an adjective

4. The modification of the quantity through the adverb:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1για μια εβδομάδα περίπου for about a week
2τουλάχιστον πέντε φορές at least five times
3τόσο πολλοί άνθρωποι that many people
4σχεδόν όλα τα παιδιά almost all the children

In the above sentences all the adverbs give info about the nouns they are preceding.

5. The modification of a clause or phrase by an adverb

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Απλώς ήθελα να δω αν ήταν καλά. I simply wanted to see if it was okay.
2Δυστυχώς δεν τον είδα. Unfortunately I did not see him.
3Πραγματικά δεν μου αρέσει ο τρόπος σου. In fact I don't like your method.
4Ειλικρινά λυπάμαι γι 'αυτό μωρό μου. Quite frankly I'm sorry honey.

The above-mentioned adverbs express the assessment of the speaker on the meaning of the clause or whole phrase. They are particularly useful to connect two sentences and often appear at the beginning of a sentence, though the may be used in other positions. Some more of these adverbs are:

  • ευτυχώς - fortunately, luckily, happily
  • βέβαια - of course, sure, certainly
  • ίσως - maybe, perhaps
  • περιέργως - curiously, pryingly
  • σίγουρα - certainly
  • τελικά - eventually, finally, ultimately
  • φυσικά *- certainly, of course, naturally

* Two different word sequences might be confusing:

θα μιλήσω φυσικά I will speak naturally (in a natural way)
Φυσικά θα μιλήσω Naturally (obviously) I will speak.
Some additional functions are:

1. Adverbs can be used as an exclamation e.g.:

ελληνικά ολλανδικά
ακριβώς! exactly, precisely!
βέβαια of βεβαίως! of course, sure, certainly!
έκτακτα! excellent!
καλά! okay, well!
λαμπρά! brilliant!
σαφώς! clearly, plainly!
ωραία! fine, prettily, nattily, nicely!

Abovementionde adverbs of manner are used to express an answer on something that has been said.

2. Other types are used to express a reaction:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
ναι yes
όχι no
ίσως perhaps, maybe
πράγματι indeed
μάλιστα certainly

3. Bijwoorden die zinsdelen en zinnen samenvoegen:

English Greek
besides άλλωστε
consequently, therefore άρα
differently διαφορετικά
in addition, moreover εξάλλου
therefore, accordingly, consequently επομένως
so, thus έτσι
it's as of λες και
now, then, so λοιπόν
now, still, yet όμως
just the same παρ'όλα αυτά
anyway, in any case, at any rate πάντως
then τότε
now τώρα
however, nevertheless ωστόσο
Examples in sentences:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Άλλωστε/εξάλλου, όπως βλέπεις εχούμε αρκετά φαγητά. Moreover, we have enough food, as you see.
Δεν είπε λέξη, άρα δεν της ζητήσαμε τίποτα. She did not say a word, so we did not ask her anything
Διαφορετικά δε θα είχαμε έρθει σήμερα Otherwise we would not have come today.
Είναι επομένως απολύτως αναγκαίο να δεχθεί η πρόταση. Thereforeit is absolutely necessary to accept the proposal.
Έτσι είναι η ζωή, αγόρι μου. That is life, my boy.
Λες και δεν ξέρω ποιος είσαι. As if I don't know who you are.
Πρέπει λοιπόν να δράσουμε. So we have to act.
Σ'αυτή την περίπτωση, όμως, δεν ήταν ατύχημα. In this case however it was not a accident.
Θα κάνει αυτό που θέλει παρ' όλα αυτά. He will nevertheless do what he wants.
Εγώ πάντως πιστεύω ότι είναι βλακείες. I think it is nonsense anyway.
Τότε ίσως μπορώ να βοηθήσω. Then I might help.
Λοιπόν, τώρα το ξέρεις. So now you know it.
Χρειάζομαι ωστόσο περισσότερος χρόνος. Nevertheless I need more time.
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1. Η Ελένη τρέχει πολύ γρήγορα. Helen runs very fast.
2. Το φαγητό είναι πάνω στο τραπέζι. The food is on the table.
3. Η γυναίκα είναι μέσα στο αυτοκίνητο. The woman is sitting in the car.
  • 1. In this sentence is «γρήγορα» the main point of the clause «πολύ γρήγορα».
  • 2. Here is «πάνω» the main point of «πάνω στο τραπέζι».
  • 3. Hete is «μέσα» in volgorde bovenaan in het zinsdeel «μέσα στο αυτοκίνητο».
An adverbial clause can be a single adverb, a clause, a clause with an adverb or a clause with a noun:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1. Θα φύγω αύριο. I will leave tomorrow.
2. Θα φύγω την άλλη μέρα. I will leave the next day.
3. Αφήνω μετά τέλειωσα τη δουλειά μου. I'm going after my work is done.
  • When we analyse sentence 1 tje word «αύριο» is an adverbial clause of time; when parsing the sentence it's an adverb of time.
  • When we analyse sentence 2 the part of the zentence «την άλλη μέρα» is an adverbial clause of time and when parsing this sentence consists of an article, an adverb and a noun
  • When we analyse sentence 3 the part «μετά τέλειωσα τη δουλειά μου» is again an adverbial clause of time, because I only go when I'm ready. When parsing the sentence consists of an adverb, a personal and possessive pronoun and a verb.
 

Use the following link for an explanation on analysing and parsing.