• A semicolon is used as a question mark in Modern Greek.
  • Some personal pronouns are «εγώ» and «εσύ» - I and you. They are only used to emphasize something. In all other cases, the ending of the verb indicates the person. The personal pronouns are declined for case and singular and plural.
  • Some possessive pronouns are «μου» and «σου» - mine and yours and «μας» and «σας» - ours and yours (also polite). Possessive pronouns are not declined.
  • Some conjunctions are «κι» or «και», which means and and also or too.
  • The forms of the definite articles the and it are in the nominative (1st case) masculine, feminine and neuter resp. «ο», «η» and «το». They are declined for case and singular and plural. The three forms of the indefinite article one are «ένας», «μία, μια» and «ένα». They are declined for case and singular. For proper names the definite article is used in Modern Greek.
  • Adverbs like «πού» and «παντού» - where and everywhere are indeclinable.
  • Nouns can be of the masculine, feminine and neuter grammatical gender. They are declined for case and singular and plural.
  • Adjectives can be of the masculine, feminine and neuter grammatical gender. They are declined for case and singular and plural.
The strong form of the personal pronouns

Singular - Ενικός Αριθμός

cases 1st person 2nd person 3rd pers.masculine 3rd pers.feminine 3rd pers.neuter
1st case εγώ εσύ αυτός αυτή αυτό
2nd case μού/μου σού/σου αυτού αυτής αυτού
4th case εμένα/με εσένα/σε αυτόν αυτήν αυτό

Plural - Πληθυντικός Αριθμός

cases 1st person 2nd person 3rd pers.masculine 3rd pers.feminine 3rd pers.neuter
1st case εμείς εσείς αυτοί αυτές αυτά
2nd case μάς/μας σάς/σας αυτών αυτών αυτών
4th case εμάς/μας εσάς/σας αυτούς αυτές αυτά

As mentioned, the personal pronouns are usually omitted in Modern Greek but it will be obvious by the ending of the verb which person we are dealing with, e.g.«(εγώ) αγοράζω» - «(εσύ) αγοράζεις» - I buy - you buy.

The strong form of the personal pronouns is used in case there is a clear distinction between the persons, a.f:

  • When the person is emphasized.
  • When the contrast between one person and nobody else is indicated.
  • When they function as subject, object or indirect object of the verb.
  • When they function as direct- or indirect object in a sentence with a preposition. (After the below-mentioned prepositions «από» and «σε» inclusive, «με, για, χωρίς» - with, for, without always the strong form wil be used.
  • When they operate on their own.
  • When the personal pronoun is not mentioned.
Some examples are:
  • Εσύ πού πας;
  • Εγώ πάω εκεί
  • Εσένα πού είναι ο αντράς σου;
  • Αγοράζω το σπίτι για σένα.
  • Εμείς οι Έλληνες είναι καλοί!
  • Αγοράζω σπίτι.
  • where are you going?
  • I go there. (not you)
  • Where is your man?
  • I buy the house for you.
  • We Greeks are good!
  • I buy a house.
The possessive pronoun
Singular - ενικός αριθμός Plural - πληθυντικός αριθμός
μου my μας our
σου your σας your
του his τους their
της her τους their

This possessive pronoun is formed by using the genitive (2nd case) of the weak personal pronoun. (see lesson 2)

The second form possessive pronouns is the emphasized form.(see lesson 2)

Some examples with his form are:

  • Η αδελφή σου έχει δύσκολη δουλειά.
  • Ο αδελφός του είναι ένας όμορφος άντρας.
  • Η μητέρα της έχει την οικογένειά της στην Ελλάδα.
  • Ο πατέρας μας έχει ένα μαγαζί.
  • Your sister has a difficult job
  • His brother is a handsome man.
  • Her mother has her family in Greece.
  • Our father has a shop.

Sometimes the possessive pronoun is placed between the adjective and noun, as in: «το ωραίο μου κήπο» - my nice garden.

In below sentences 5, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, and 20 the possessive pronoun is used. All with the noun in the nominative (1st case), except in sentence 16 with the noun in the accusative (4th case) because it is the direct object.

Nouns with three syllables and the accent on the third syllable from the end of the word, get an extra stress on the syllable before the possessive pronoun:

  • ο δάσκαλός μου
  • τo μάθημά σου
  • η οικογένιά της
  • my teacher
  • your lesson
  • her family

The articles

Modern Greek has two types of articles, the definite and the indefinite type. Both are declined by case and gender. In addition, it is of course also important whether the noun is singular or plural. The definite article indicates a specific item, in contrast to the indefinite article, which is used for non-specific elements.

The definite article
Singular - ενικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine euter
1st case ο η το
2nd case του της του
4th case το(ν) τη(ν) το
Plural - πληθυντικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case οι οι τα
2nd case των των των
4the case τους τις τα
The indefinite article
Singular - ενικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case ένας μια, μία ένα
2nd case ενός μιας, μίας ενός
4th case ένα(ν) μια(ν), μία(ν) ένα

One is used for the indefinite article singular. It is compatible in all gender forms with the number one, but not in meaning.

In this lesson the following verbs, nouns, prepositions, articles, adverbs and adjectives, personal and possessive pronouns are used in sentences, including above-mentioned notes:
Greek English
part of speech meaning
αγοράζω to buy verb
είμαι to be irregular verb, link verb, auxiliary verb
έχω to have irregular verb, auxiliary verb
πηγαίνω/πάω to go verb
η δασκάλα the (female) teacher noun
ο δάσκαλος the teacher noun
η οικογένεια the family noun
η αδελφή the sister noun
ο αδελφός the brother noun
η δουλειά the job, work noun
το σπίτι het huis noun
το σχολείο the school noun
το μάθημα the lesson noun
ο φίλος the friend noun
η φίλη the girlfriend noun
ο κήπος the garden noun
ο δρόμος the street noun
ο άντρας the man noun
η γυναίκα the woman noun
η μητέρα the mother noun
ο πατέρας the father noun
το μαγαζί the shop noun
η χώρα the country noun
η Ελλάδα Greece noun/proper name
η Ολλανδία Holland noun/proper name
ο Γιάννης John noun/proper name
από van, vanaf, sinds etc preposition
σε naar preposition
του his possessive pronoun
της her possessive pronoun
αυτός he personal pronoun
αυτή she personal pronoun
μπροστά in front adverb
πολύ zeer, erg adverb
εδώ here adverb
εκεί there adverb
ωραίος, α, -ο nice, lovely adjective
όμορφος, -η, -ο beautiful, handsome adjective
μεγάλος, -η, -ο large, big, great adjective
δύσκολος, -η, -ο difficult, hard adjective
καλός, ή, -ό good adjective

The herewith formed sentences are:

Greek English
1. Εσύ πού πας; Where are you going?
2. Αυτός είναι ο Γιάννης. That (he) is John.
3. Είναι από την Αγγλία. He is from England.
4. Έχει ένα σπίτι εδώ. He has a house here.
5. Αυτή και ο φίλος της αγοράζουν το σπίτι. She and her friend buy the house.
6. Έχουν πολύ καλούς φίλους. The have very good frinds.
7. Είναι δασκάλα. She is a teacher.
8. Είναι δάσκαλος. He is a teacher.
9. Έχουν μεγάλο κήπο. Zij hebben een grote tuin.
10. Είναι η καλή φίλη του. She is his good friend.
11. Ο κήπος είναι μπροστά, στο δρόμο. The garden is in front, at the street.
12. Το μάθημα στο σχολείο είναι πολύ δύσκολο. The lesson on school is very difficult.
13. Ο δάσκαλός της είναι από την Ελλάδα. Her teacher is from Greece.
14. Ο πατέρας του έχει μια μεγάλη οικογένεια. His father has a big family.
15. Η μητέρα της πηγαίνει στο μαγαζί. Her mother goes to the shop.
16. Έχει την δουλειά της εκεί. She has her work there.
17. Η Ελλάδα είναι μια μεγάλη χώρα. Greece is a big country.
18. Ο πατέρας μου είναι ένας όμορφος άντρας. My father is a handsome man.
19. Ο κήπος είναι ωραίος. The garden is nice.
20. Ο πατέρας και η μητέρα μας έχουν ένα μαγαζί. Our father and mother have a shop.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «πάω, πηγαίνω».

  • πάω, πηγαίνω
  • πας, πηγαίνεις
  • πάει, πηγαίνει
  • πάμε, πηγαίνουμε
  • πάτε, πηγαίνετε
  • πάνε, παν, πηγαίνουν(ε)
  • I go
  • you go
  • he/she/it goes
  • we go
  • you go
  • they gaan
  • In the first sentence the personal pronoun is used for extra emphasis, as well as «πάω» and in sentence 15 «πηγαίνω». They are completely interchangeable in the present tense of the indicative mood (above). However, there are differences in their use with the particles «θα» of the 2nd future tense or the indicated mood and «να» of the aorist, in the subjunctive mood. This has to do with a one-off ended action and an ongoing action. Furthermore, there are some expressions in which one fits better than the other e.g. let's go! - «πάμε!» and not «πηγαίνουμε!». Explanation in detail of the particles is to be found here.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «αγοράζω».

  • αγοράζω
  • αγοράζεις
  • αγοράζει
  • αγοράζουμε, αγοράζομε
  • αγοράζετε
  • αγοράζουν(ε)
  • I buy
  • you buy
  • he/she/it buys
  • we buy
  • you buy
  • they buy
  • «αγοράζω» is a regular verb with an active and passive voice vorm.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «είμαι».

  • είμαι
  • είσαι
  • είναι
  • είμαστε
  • είστε, είσαστε
  • είναι
  • I am
  • you are
  • he/she/it is
  • we are
  • you are
  • they are
  • The verb «είμαι» is also a linking-verb and an auxiliary verb.It is used to connect the subject in a sentence with a adjectival and nominal predicate. It has no perfect tenses, just the present tense and the imperfect.
  • In sentence 2 the third person singular «είναι» is used with the personal pronoun to emphasize anew that is here about «Γιάννη», whilst in sentence 3 the personal pronoun is omitted, as a result of the remark in sentence 2 it is clear that it is still about «Γιάννη». If this sentence «Είναι από την Αγγλία» would stand on its own, the translation also could be: She is from England.
  • In the sentences 7 and 8 it is obvious that the personal pronouns can be omitted because of the feminine and masculine nouns.
  • In the sentences 11, 12, 13, 17, 18 and 19 wordt «είναι» is used as a linking-verb.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «έχω».

  • έχω
  • έχεις
  • έχει
  • έχουμε, έχομε
  • έχετε
  • έχουν(ε)
  • I have
  • you have
  • he/she/it has
  • we have
  • you have
  • they have
  • «έχω» is a iregular verb of which only the present tense is regular. It is, as well as «είμαι» - to be, used as an auxiliary verb to form perfect tenses. «έχω» itself does not have perfect tenses and no passive voice.
  • Sentence 4 appertains to sentence 2 and 3 which both are about «Γιάννη» and consequently no personal pronoun is used here too.
  • The 3rd person plural is used in sentence 9, they have. Here it is clear that no personal pronouns is required. As well as «έχουν» in sentence 20, where «Ο πατέρας και η μητέρα μας» are they.
  • In sentence 14 «έχει» is used with «ο πατέρας του» his father, in the 3rd person singular.
  • The using of «έχει», without personal pronoun in sentence 16 is obvious, by the phrase «την δουλειά της»
  • When we parse sentence 6 «Έχουν πολύ καλούς φίλους», then the subject is they (not mentioned in Greek) - have is the predicate and very is an adverbial clause, because it says someting about the adjective good and good fiends is the direct object (this can be determined by putting who or what before the phrases, in this case what do they have?). Hence «καλούς φίλους» is the 4th case plural of the noun «φίλος» and the adjective «καλός». They end on «ος» and «ός». Both the words are in the 1st case plural «φίλοι» and «καλοί». Consequently the endings for the 4th case are «-ους» and «-ούς». Please refer the masculine nouns with the ending in «ος» hier and the adjectives ending in «ός» hier.