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On the following links you will find some highly qualified websites on English Grammar, including parsing sentences:

Grammarpedia
UCL-English Grammar

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Irene Droppert
Dutch - Modern Greek
Vlaardingen-The Netherlands

The definite article has a singular and plural form

Singular - ενικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case ο η το
2nd case του της του
4th case το(ν) τη(ν) το
Plural - πληθυντικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case οι οι τα
2nd case των των των
4th case τους τις τα

In Greek proper names are always preceded by the definite article.

ελληνικά αγγλικά
Ο Γιάννης John
Ο Δούρειος Ίππος The Trojan Horse
Το Ζινικό Τείχος The Chinese Wall
  • It is used for geographical names
ελληνικά αγγλικά
η Ελλάδα Greece
η Αθήνα Athens
η Πελοπόννησος the Poloponnesos
Examples in a sentence:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Ο Γιάννης δεν είναι στο σπίτι. John is not at home.
2Ο Μανόλης μένει στην Πάτρα. Manolis lives in Patras.
3Η Ελλάδα είναι μια μεγάλη χώρα. Greece is a big country.
4Η Πόπη είναι από τον Πειραιά. Popy is from Piraeus.
 

In these four sentences we use proper names and geographical names.

The preposition «σε» in sentence 2 has been combined with the definite article in the 4th case

In sentence 3 the phrase «μια μεγάλη χώρα» is the direct object and hence «μια» should be «μιαν» (4th case). Because of the «μ» of «μεγάλη» the last «ν» is omited.

In sentence 4 «τον Πειραιά» is preceded by the preposition «από». Thus the definite article of «ο Πειραιάς» has been declined accordingly by «τον». Here the last «ν» is used because of the obligation to mention it in front of a «π».


N.B.

The preposition «σε», which means at, in, and on, is combined with the definite article:

  • στον Πειραιά - in Piraeus
  • στην Αθήνα - in Athens
  • στο Βέλγιο - to/in Belgium
  • στην Αγγλία - to/in England
  • στους Κάτω Χώρες - to the Netherlands
  • στις πόλεις - naar de steden
  • μέσα στα σπίτια - binnenin de huizen

Read more about this preposition on this page

The definite articles are widely used to indicate a certain time (days, times of day, years, months and seasons) feasts and heavenly bodies:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
Θα σε δω την Τετάρτη. I'll see you Wednesday.
O Φεβρουάριος είναι ο μικρότερος μήνας του έτους. February is the shortest month of the year.
O χειμώνας φέτος ήταν βαρύς. The winter was tough this year.
Το 2010 ήταν καλύτερο. 2010 was better.
Φέτος το Πάσχα θα είναι νωρίς. This year Easter will be early.
Ο Δίας είναι ένας από τους εννέα πλανήτες. Jupiter is one of the nine planets.
Θα σε δω το μεσημέρι. I'll see you at midday.

A definite article is among others applied to refer to a specific person of whom the speaker knows that his discussion partner is an acquaintance of that person:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Ήρθε ο άνδρας της Ελένης. Helens' husband came.
2Ήρθε ο άνδρας της. Her husband came.
3Ο Μανόλης είναι ο φίλος μου. Manolis is my friend.
4Ήρθαν τα παιδιά του γείτονα. The neighbors' children came.
5Πουλάει την καλύτερη ποιότητα. He sells the finest quality.
6Του έδωσα τις πιο σημαντικές πληροφορίες. I gave him the most important information.
7Έφυγε η γηναίκα, που είδαμε χθες. The woman, we saw yesterday, left.
8Επισκέφτηκε η κοπέλα, που συνάντησα περασμένη εβδομάδα. The girl, I met last week, came to visit.
9Kοίτα να κλείσεις την πύλη στον κήπο. Be sure to close the gate in the garden.
10Bρήκα την παρέα μου στο καφενείο. I found my company in the pub.
11Θέλω την άσπρη ζώνη. I want the white belt.
12Θα ήθελα να αγοράσω τα μαύρα παπούτσια. I would like to buy the black shoes.
 N.B.
  • The sentences 1 and 2 indicate that the discussion partner of the speaker is an acquaintance of the person they are talking about.
  • When a specific noun phrase has been used, as in the sentences 3 + 4, the definite article is applied with a possessive pronoun (here «μου» and «του»). If this is not the case, then the article is omitted like in «είναι φίλος της» - he is a friend of hers
  • Depending on the degree of comparison of an adjective or an adverb, the definite article is used in the sentences 5 +6.
  • The definite article is applied when a specific noun phrase is used:
  • for the reason that it is accompanied by a subclause as in the sentences 7 + 8 by «που είδαμε χθες» and «που συνάντησα περασμένη εβδομάδα».
  • because a clause containing a preposition is following the first noun in order to give more information, as in the sentences 9 + 10 e.g. «την πύλη στον κήπο» and «την παρέα στο καφενείο» (a combination with the preposition «σε»)
  • because a clause with an adjective is following the verb, as the sentences 11 + 12.

Subsequently some more cases where the definite article is used, in which we sometimes omit it:

ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Το είδα στην τηλεόραση. I saw it on TV.
2Ήρθε με το τρένο. He/she came by train.
3Αγαπώ τη γλώσσα μου. I love my language.
4Σκέφτεται το μέλλον του. He thinks of his future
5Δε φοβάμαι το θάνατο. I am not afraid of death.
6Ήρθαν αυτοί οι φίλοι του χθες. Those friends of his came yesterday.
7Εκείνη την ημέρα θα φύγουν. That day they will leave.
8Όλοι οι άνθρωποι είναι θνητοί. All humans are mortal.
9Όλος ο κόσμος μιλάει γι’ αυτόν. Everyone talks about him.
10Το ποδόσφαιρο μ'αρέσει πιο πολύ από τα αθλήματα. Of sports I love football the most.
11Ένα χελιδόνι δε φέρνει την άνοιξη. One swallow doesn't make a summer.
12Τα τρία τέταρτα του πλανήτη μας είναι νερό. Three quarters of our planet is water.
13Είκοσι τοις εκατό του πληθυσμού συμφώνησε από την πρόταση Twenty percent of the population agreed with the proposal.
14Ποιο παντελονι προτιμάς, το μπλε ή το μαύρο; Which pants do you prefer, blue or black?
15Από τις τρεις πίνακες κρεμώντας εδώ, μία έλειπε. Out of the three paintings hanging here, one was missing.
16Οι πλούσιοι αγοράζουν ακριβά αυτοκίνητα. The rich buy expensive cars.
17Ο τελικός (αγώνας) θα τύχει αύριο. The final will take place tomorrow.
18Τρέξαμε με δεκαπέντε χιλιόμετρα την ώρα. We ran ten miles an hour.
 N.B.
  • The definite article, used in the above sentences:
  • In the phrases 1 and 2, the definite article refers to a direct object, of which the existence is clear.
  • In the sentences 3, 4 and 5, it is applied to denote nouns which express an abstract concept.
  • It is used when a demonstrative pronoun has been mentioned or when an unspecified number is described, as in the sentences 6, 7, 8 and 9
  • Same with words indicating universality, as in the sentences 10 + 11.
  • In the sentences 12, 13, 14 and 15 it is used to express parts, percentages, numerals and adverbs.
  • In expressions with independently used adjectives, as in sentences 16 + 17.
  • In expressions that denote proportionality, as in sentence 18.

The definite article is omitted in the following cases:

  • When a noun is the subject and denotes a part of a whole such as in the phrases
    1 + 2.
  • When a subject object denotes a part of a whole such as in the phrases 3 + 4.
  • In the sentences 5, 6 and 7 the word «σαν» is used and the article may be omitted unless a specific person or thing is meant.
  • In many sentences, as shown in 8, 9 and 10, in which is a preposition is used together in a clause with a noun, if the preposition indicates no particular meaning.
ελληνικά ολλανδικά
1Ένα κομμάτι ψωμί. A piece of bread.
2Ένα μπουκάλι νερό. A bottle of water.
3Μ'αρπέσει να τρώω ψάρι. I like to eat fish.
4Χύθηκα νερό στο τραπέζι. I spilled water on the table.
5Tον αγαπάει σαν αδελφό της. She loves him like a brother.
6Σαν γνωστός μού φάνηκες. He posed as an acquaintance of mine.
7Σαν διευθυντής της εταιρείας, ήταν πολύ αυστηρός As director of the company he was very stern.
8Το γραφείο μας έχει κατά προσέγγιση ένα εκατομμύριο σε πωλήσεις Our firm has about a million of sales.
9Η κακή συμπεριφορά του τον έβαλε σε μπελάδες. His bad behavior discommoded him.
10Έκανε με προθυμία ό,τι του ζήτησα. He was willing to do what I asked him.
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Mη σκέπτεσαι το χθες, κοίτα το αύριο. Don't think of yesterday, look at tomorrow.
2Άργησα, άκουσε όμως το γιατί. I was late, but listen why.
3Το πληγώθηκε το εγώ του. His ego was hurt by it.
4Το τι μου είπε δεν μπορείς να φανταστείς! That what he told me, you can not imagine.
5Δεν ξέρω ακόμα το πόσο θα μου το στοιχίσω. Do not know yet how much it will cost me.
6Μη ρώτα το πώς και το γιατί. Do not ask the how and why.
7Πώς γράφεται το «δικηγόρος»; How to write lawyer?
8Κλίνε το «κολυμπάω» στον παρατατικός. Conjugate swimming in the simple past tense.
9Ξέρετε το τραγούδι «Το Ποτάμι»; Do you know the song The River?
10Μην πήγαινε προς τα πάνω. Don't go upstairs.
11Ήρθε προς τα εδώ. He came here.
12Μάζεψαν τα παιχνίδιά τους στα γρήγορα. They gathered their toys hastily.
13Θα μπορούσα να βρώ το μερός στα τυφλά. I would find the place blindfolded
14Kοίταξε και λίγο τον εαυτό σου! Also look after yourself a little!
15Ξέρουν τους εαυτούς τους πολύ καλά. They know themselves very well.
16Και οι μεν και οι δεν είναι καλοί. They are either good or not.
 N.B.
  • «το» in the above:
  • The substantively used part of speech:
  • In sentence 1 an adjective of time is substantively used.
  • In sentence 2 an interrogative adjective is substantively used.
  • In sentence 3 a personal pronoun is substantively used.
  • In the sentences 4, 5 and 6 «το» is used to introduce a clause beginning with an interrogative pronoun.
  • In the sentences 7 + 8 the definite article refers to a specific word.
  • This article is applied for titles of books, poems and songs, as in sentence 9.
  • In the sentences 10 + 11, the neuter definite article is used in the plural for an adverb. These are mainly the adverbs a.f.: «εδώ» and «εκεί» - here and there, «πάνω» and «κάτω» - up and down, «μπρος» en «πίσω» - front and rear, see sentences 10 + 11.
  • It is used in standard expressions before a neuter plural adjective, interpretating it as an adverb, as in the sentences 12 +13.
  • In reflexive expressions the definite article is used for the pronoun yourself - «εαυτός» in singular and «εαυτούς» in plural, followed by one of the possessive pronouns. See sentences 14 + 15.
  • The definite article is used substantively in sentences, containing the clause either the one or other - «και ο μεν και ο δεν». In this case, the article is inflected by gender, singular or plural and case. See sentence 16.