• In determining the correct case, it is necessary that the text can be parsed. Parsing is a grammatical exercise in which a text is divided into component parts of the speech, with an explanation of the form, function and syntactic relation of each component. The case determines the function of a Greek word in a sentence. If different cases of a Greek word can be formed, then the different functions can be indicated:
case manner
1st case or nominative is used for the subject of a sentence and for the nominal predicate.
2nd case or genitive is used to indicate the possessor of a word in the genitive, in front of an indirect object denoted by a personal pronoun and following some prepositions
3rd case or dative is only used for fixed expressions from Ancient Greek
4th case or accusative is used in front of the direct object, for date and time indications and after most of the prepositions.
5de naamval of vocatief is used, in front of the direct object with a verb in the imperative
  • Parsing

When we, as an example, parse the sentence «τον επόμενο μήνα θα πάμε στη Νάξο» - the next month we will go to Naxos, the finite verb is «θα πάμε» - we will go, inwhich the subject is «έμας» - we is hidden. «θα πάμε» is also the predicate, «τον επόμενο μήνα» - the next month is an adverbial modifier (of time) and consequently inflected in the 4th case, the same applies for «στη Νάξο» - to Naxos, this is the adverbial modifier (of place), also inflected in the accusative (because of the use of the preposition «σε»). Look at English Grammar for more information about parsing.

  • Word Classes

To describe the Word-Classes in the above sentence we are dealing with the following classes: «τον»- the is the accusative of the masculine article «ο», μήνα» is the masculine noun «μήνας» - month, declined in the accusative (without «ς») and «επόμενο» is the accusative of the adjective «επόμενος» - next. The preposition «σε» - to plus the accusative of the article «η» «την» is constricted to «στη», whereat the end «-ν» may be omitted in this case and «Νάξο» is the feminine noun «Νάξος» declined in the accusative.

greek english parsing
Ο πατέρας εργάζεται σήμερα. Father is working today. The subject is «ο πατέρας». The predicate is «εργάζεται» and «σήμερα» is the adverbial.
Η Ελένη είναι πολύ έξυπνη. Helen is very smart. The subject is «η Ελένη». The nominal predicate is «είναι πολύ έξυπνη». The adjectival determination «έξυπνη» belongs to the subject. The adverbial «πολύ» is related to «έξυπνη». In this sentence is «είναι» a form of the verb «είμαι» - to be, used as a linking verb.
Το σπίτι του γιατρού είναι μεγάλο. The house of the doctor is big. The subject is «το σπίτι του γιατρού». The nominal predicate is «είναι μεγάλο», «είναι» is a form of «είμαι» - to be, used as a linking verb. The adjectival determination «μεγάλο» is pertained to «το σπίτι του γιατρού» and «του γιατρού» is an adjectival determination belonging to «το σπίτι».
Μου δίνει τα πορτοκάλια. He gives the oranges to me. «αυτός» - he/she, exists unmentioned as the subject in the finite verb «δίνει» which is also the predicate, «μου» is the indirect object, because the question can be asked: to whom does he give the oranges? and «τα πορτοκάλια» is the direct object, because the question can be asked: what does he give?
Η Ελλάδα είναι μια μεγάλη χώρα. Greece is a big country The subject is Greece. The nominal predicate is «είναι μια μεγάλη χώρα», expressed with the linking verb «είμαι».The subject Greece is described as a big country, hence «μια μεγάλη χώρα» is the nominal part of the nominal predicate and «είναι» is the verbial part of it. The adjectival determination «μεγάλη» belongs to the feminine noun «χώρα».
* Opmerking

A nominal predicate is a predicate, whereat the nominal, that says something about the subject, is preceded by a linking verb. Look at the linking verbs

Modern Greek does not correspond with English, regarding the concept nominal predicate. Look at nominal predicate

* Phrases and expessions from the Ancient Greek

The old 3rd case (the dative) survived in some fixed adverbial expressions. Although the dative does not have a function since long, in the spoken language there are a few vestiges in the form of blocks and fixed phrases:

  • ελλείψει
  • βάσει
  • παρυσία
  • δόξα τω Θεώ
  • απουσία
  • δυνάμει
  • πάση θυσία
  • πραγμάτι
  • έργω
  • τοις εκατόν
  • in the absence of
  • based on
  • in the presence of
  • Thank God! Thank goodness!
  • in the absence of, for lack of
  • by virtue of
  • for love or money
  • actually, in fact
  • in practice
  • per hundred
A summary of lessons 1, 2, and 3
Some examples with the strong and weak forms of the personal pronouns:
  • 01. Αυτοί, οι Άγγλοι μιλούν πολύ καθαρά.
  • 02. Αυτή πηγαίνει στο μαγαζί.
  • 03. Ίσως είμαι εδώ για να μάθω από εσένα.
  • 04. Ο σύζυγός της είvαι έvας από εμάς.
  • 05. Εμείς πάντα ζούμε πολύ απλά
  • 06. Της δίνεις τα βιβλία.
  • 07. Του τα δίνει.
  • 08. Της ανοίγει την πόρτα
  • 09. Ζουν στο Λονδίνο.
  • 10. Του τo γράφω.
  • They, the English, speak very clear.
  • She goes to the shop. (not he)
  • Maybe I'm here to learn from you.
  • Her husband is one of us.
  • We always live very simple.
  • You give the books to her.
  • He gives them to him
  • He opens the door for her.
  • They live in London.
  • I write is to him.
  • «αυτοί» in the nominative of the 3rd masculine person plural of the strong personal ponoun «αυτός», because they has been emphasised.
  • «αυτή» in the nominative of the 3rd feminine person singular of the strong personal ponoun «αυτή». She goes to the shop not he, hence it is emphasised.
  • «εσένα» in the accusative of the 2nd person singular of the strong personal pronoun «εσύ», because it is predicted by the preposition «χωρίς», this case is used. See the preposition page
  • The same applies for «εμάς» in the accusative of the 1st person plural of the strong personal pronoun «εμείς», predicted by the preposition door «από».
  • In sentence 5 «εμείς» is used because it is the subject. It is declined in the nominative. It means we and not they or you, which is also expressed through the conjugation of the verb «ζω» in the 3rd person plural.
  • The question to be asked here is: to whom do you give? and the answer is: to her, hence «της» is declined in the genitive of the 3rd feminine person singular.
  • The question is: to whom does he give them?: and the answer is: to him, hence «του» is declined in the genitive of the 3rd masculine personsingular. The weak personal pronoun «τα» is here the direct object.
  • The question is: for whom does he (or she) open the door and the answer is: for her, hence «της is declined in the genitive of the 3rd feminine person singular.
  • From the conjugation of the verb «ζω» is to be learned that we are dealing here with the strong personal pronoun «αυτοί».
  • The question is: to whom are you writing? and the answer is: to him, hence «του» is declined in the genitive of the 3rd masculine person singular. The second question is: what are you writing to him? with the answer: it. The weak personal pronoun «τo» is again the direct object, hence it is declined in the 3rd neuter person singular.
Some examples with the articles and the possessive pronouns:
  • 01. Ο πατέρας του ανοίγει για αυτούς.
  • 02. Ο πατέρας μου είναι στον κήπο.
  • 03. Έχει το δικό του χωράφι.
  • 04. Η οικογένειά του δεν είναι τόσο μεγάλη.
  • 05. Είναι για τη δική μας οικογένεια όχι για τη δική σου.
  • 06. Οι δικοί της γονείς μένουν στο Λονδίνο.
  • 07. Είναι δικό μου λάθος.
  • 08. Απλά κάνω τη δουλειά μου.
  • 09. Η μητέρα τους διάβαζει πολλά βιβλία.
  • 10. Έχουμε τις δικές μας τάξεις, τα δικά μας μαθήματα και τη δική μας γλώσσα.
  • His father opens the door for them.
  • My father is in the garden.
  • He has his own field.
  • His family is not that big.
  • It is for our own family not for yours.
  • Her own parents live in London.
  • It is my own fault.
  • I simply do my job.
  • Their mother reads a lot of books.
  • We have our own classrooms, our own lessons and our own language.
  • The phrase «Ο πατέρας του» is the subject of the sentence, «ο» is the masculine article (the) and «του» the possessive pronoun (of him)
  • The phrase «Ο πατέραςμου» is the subject of the sentence, «ο» is the masculine article (the) and) «μου» the possessive pronoun (mine)
  • The phrase «το δικό του χωράφι» is the direct object, «το» the neuter article in the accusative and «δικό του» the emphasized possessive part.
  • «η οικογένειά του» is the subject of the sentence, «η» the feminine article and «του» the possessive pronoun.
  • The phrases «για τη(ν) δική μας οικογένεια» and «για τη(ν) δική σου» are declined in the accusative on behalf of the preposition «για». The feminine declined article «η» wordt in the accusatuve is «την» (the end «-ν» can be omitted in front of the «δ»). The emphasized parts pf the possessive pronoun «δικός, -ή, -ό» - own, are in feminine singular «δική μας» and «δική σου».
  • «Οι δικοί της γονείς», the subject of the sentence, consists of «οι», the plural of the masculine article «ο». The plural of «ο γονέας» - the parent or the father is «οι γονείς».
  • «δικό μου λάθος» is the nominal part of the predicate, because it follows a linkingverb , vanwege het koppelwerkwoord dat ervoor staat. «λάθος» - mistake, guilt, error is irregular, neuter noun of which the accusative is also «λάθος» is, i.o. «λάθο» (without «ς») as with the regular nouns in the accusative.
  • The direct object is «τη δουλειά μου», therefore the accusative is used. «δουλειά» is a feminine noun, hence the article is declined to «την», but the end «ν», in front of the «δ», may be omitted staat. The possessive pronoun «μου» is not declined.
  • «η μητέρα τους» is the subject, hence the nominative is used. The possessive pronoun, «τους», is not declined.
  • «τις δικές μας τάξεις», «τα δικά μας μαθήματα» and «τη δική μας γλώσσα» are direct objects, the strong possessive form with «δικός, -ή, -ό» is used.
Some examples with adverbs and adjectives
  • 01. Αυτό είναι ο παλιός μου αριθμός.
  • 02. Δώστε μου πίσω τα λεφτά μου!
  • 03. Σου δίνω μια τελευταία ευκαιρία.
  • 04. Ο ουρανός είναι γαλάζιος και το γρασίδι είναι πράσινο
  • 05. Φεύγεις κιόλας;
  • 06. Έχουμε βραστές μελιτζάνες για δείπνο.
  • 07. Το κατάστημα βρίσκεται απέναντι από το νοσοκομείο.
  • 08. Το καλοκαίρι ο κήπος είναι όμορφος.
  • 09. Δίπλα στο σπίτι μας είναι η εκκλησία.
  • 10. Το χρώμα της πόρτας είναι μπλε.
  • This is my old telephone number.
  • Give me back my money.
  • I give you a last change.
  • The sky is blue and the grass is green.
  • Do you already go?.
  • We have boiled eggplants for supper.
  • The store is opposite the hospital..
  • In summer the garden is beautiful.
  • Next to our house is the church.
  • The color of the door is blue.
  • «παλιός» is an adjective related to the masculine noun «αριθμός». It is an adjective in the category ending in «-ος, -α, -ο». Sometimes the possessive pronoun is placed between the adjective and the noun.
  • «πίσω» is an adverb, which means behind or back. It is often used with the prepositions «κατά» and «από»
  • «τελευταίος, -α, -ο» is also an adjective in the category ending in «-ος, -α, -ο», related to feminine noun «ευκαιρία».
  • The adjective «γαλάζιος, -α, -ο» appertains to the masculine noun «ουρανός» and «πράσινος, -η, -ο» to the neuter noun «γρασίδι».(Hence both have been parsed in the masculine and neuter nominative)
  • «κιόλας» is an adverb of time.
  • «βραστός» is an adjective in the category ending on «-ος, -η, -ο».
  • «απέναντι» is an adverb of place.
  • «όμορφος» is related to the masculine noun «κήπος». It is an adjective in the category ending on «-ος, -η, -ο»
  • «δίπλα» is an adverb of place, often used in combination with the preposition «σε» which is in this case combined with the neuter article το» het onzijdige lidwoord
  • «μπλε» is an indeclinable adjective in both gender and case as in singular and plural.
In this lesson the following verbs, nouns, prepositions, adjectives, personal and possessive pronouns are used in sentences,
Greek English
meaning part of speech
βρίσκω to find, locate Irregular verb with active and passive voices
μένω to stay, live, dwell Irregular verb in the active voice
μπορώ to can, may, be able to Regular verb in the active voice
φεύγω to go away, leave Irregular verb in the active voice
ο Άγγλος, Εγγλέζος the Englishman masculine noun
ο αριθμός number, numeral masculine noun
ο γείτονας the neighbour masculine noun
το γρασίδι grass neuter noun
το δείπνο the dinner, supper neuter noun
η εκκλησία the church feminine noun<
η ευκαιρία the opportunity, chance feminine noun
το κατάστημα the shop, store neuter noun
τα λεφτά the money neuter noun (plural)
το Λονδίνο London neuter noun
η μελιτζάνα eggplant, aubergine feminine noun<
ο μήνας the month masculine noun
η Νάξος Naxos feminine noun
η πόλη town feminine noun
το νοσοκομείο hospital neuter noun
η σύζυγος wife feminine noun
ο σύζυγος husband masculine noun
η τάξη classroom, class feminine noun<
ο χρόνος time, year masculine noun
το χρώμα color neuter noun
το χωράφι field, land neuter noun
απλά simply, plainly adverb
άσχημα wrong, badly adverb
δίπλα beside, next to, near adverb
καθαρά clearly, plainly adverb
κιόλας already, in addition, also adverb
πάντα always, ever adverb
ακίνητος -η, -ο motionless,immobiile, still adjective
ενήμερος -η, -ο aware adjective
επόμενος, -η, -ο next, following adjective
ίδιος, -α, -ο same, self adjective
μόνος, -η, -ο alone adjective
μπλε blue indeclinable adjective
περισσότερος, -η, -ο numerous, more adjective
πράσινος, -η, -ο green adjective
ξύπνιος -α, -ο awake, alert adjective
σταθερός -η, -ο stable, steady, fixed adjective
χωρίς without preposition

The herewith formed sentences are:

Greek English
Σου δίνω μια τελευταία ευκαιρία I give you a last chance.
Τα λεφτά δεν έχει χρώμα. Money does not have a color.
Δίπλα στο κατάστημα βρίσκεται η εκκλησία. Next to the store is the church located.
Η σύζυγος του κ. Κωνσταντίνου δεν μιλά ελληνικά. The wife of Mr. Konstantinos does not speak Greek.
Το επόμενο καλοκαίρι θα πάμε στην Ελλάδα. Next summer we are going to Greece.
Το γρασίδι είναι πράσινο. The grass is green.
Έχω δείπνο με τους φίλους μου. I an having dinner with my friends.
Τα αυγά για το πρωινό είναι βρασμένα. The eggs for breakfast are boiled.
Εκεί είναι τα χωράφια μου. There are my fields.
Εχoυμε και βραστές μελιτζάνες για δειπνό. We also have boiled eggplants for dinner.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «βρίσκω».

  • βρίσκω
  • βρίσκεις
  • βρίσκει
  • βρίσκουμε, βρίσκομε
  • βρίσκετε
  • βρίσκουν(ε)
  • I find
  • you find
  • he/she/it find
  • we find
  • you find
  • they find
  • «βρίσκω» is an irregular active verb that occurs in a number of expressions.
  • It has also a irregular passive voice, viz. - to be located, to be situated, to be found.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «μένω».

  • μένω
  • μένεις
  • μένει
  • μένουμε, μένομε
  • μένετε
  • μένουν(ε)
  • I live
  • you live
  • he/she/it lives
  • we live
  • you live
  • they live
  • «μένω» is irregular active verb. It is mixed used with «ζω» (see lesson 3) e.g. as in:
Use Examples
to inhabit, to live in André lives in the house of his parents. ο Ανδρέας ζει (μένει) στο σπίτι των γονέων του.
Their neighbour lives upstairs. Ο γείτονάς τους μένει (ζει) πάνω.
  • «ζω» and «μένω» separately a.f.:
Use Examples
to stay alive Yes, he/she is still alive. Ναι, ζει ακόμα.
to live together She lives with her friend. Ζει με το φίλο της.
They live with their children. ζούν με τα παιδιά τους.
to live (alone) My brother lives alone. Ο αδελφός μου ζει μόνος του.
Use Examples
doorgaan We have still two months left. Μας μένουν δύο μήνες ακόμα.
blijven You can stay todayU kunt vandaag blijven. Μπορείτε να μείνετε σήμερα.
Do you stay here today? Μένεις εδώ σήμερα;
to wait Wait here! Μείνε* εδώ!
to stay, to dwell, to abide Can I stay here for a month? Μπορεί να μείνω* εδώ για ένα μήνα;
to live, to dwell My friend lives in the same town. Ο φίλος μου μένει στην ίδια πόλη.

* «μείνε» is the aorist° imperative of the verb «μένω» and * «να μείνω» is the 1ste person of the aorist° in the subjunctive mood. Look at the complete conjugation of «μένω»

° The aorist indicates a closed action or activity

A few comon types of expressions with «μένω» are:
Greek English
μένω σταθερός tenacious/remain stable
μένω για περισσότερο χρόνο από... Its years ago that...
μένω ενήμερος to keep informed
μένω πίσω stay behind
μένω ακίνητος be quiet, keep it down (don't move)
μένω ξύπνιος stay alert, stay awake

The present tense of the active verb «μπορώ».

  • μπορώ
  • μπορείς
  • μπορεί
  • μπορούμε
  • μπορείτε
  • μπορούν(ε)
  • I can
  • you can
  • he/she/it can
  • we can
  • you can
  • they can
  • «μπορώ» is a regular active verb. It is a personal verb, which expresses the ability or the permission for the subject to do something.
  • It has no passive voice.
  • The 3rd person singular is the impersonal form «μπορεί» which is often used to express the possibility of something that may happen. It can be combined with the particle «να» of the subjunctive mood and moreover with all other verb forms.

The present tense in the indicative mood of the verb «φεύγω».

  • φεύγω
  • φεύγεις
  • φεύγει
  • φεύγουμε, φεύγομε
  • φεύγετε
  • φεύγουν(ε)
  • I leave
  • you leave
  • he/she/it leaves
  • we leave
  • you leave
  • they leave
  • «φεύγω» is an irregular active verb without a passive voice.