Translator, robust and sleek designed, indicating original characters as well as romanized language:

Chora is the capital of Naxos. It's the largest town of the island.

Lionas is a quiet bay on Naxos, with a pebble beach and a crystal clear sea.

Highlights
Highlights

On the following links you will find some highly qualified websites on English Grammar, including parsing sentences:

Grammarpedia
UCL-English Grammar

Do you want a good looking website like this too? With Artisteer you are in a few minutes an expert in web design. Without technical skills such as coding the XHTML and CSS, without expensive photo editing programs and expensive web design software:

Artisteer - CMS Template Generator

read more

The ultimate reading experience


>

With the powerful and flexible open-source Content Management System Drupal, you create from simple to very complex websites. With the aid Artiseer you generate without technical knowledge fantastic Drupal templates.

Artisteer - Drupal Theme Generator

Excellent portable A4 scanner:


an image

Irene Droppert
Dutch - Modern Greek
Vlaardingen-The Netherlands

word-
ending
singular plural example
1st case 2nd case 4th case 5th case 1st case 2nd case 4th case 5th case
ο ό ού ό ό ά ών ά ά αυγό
ό ού ό ό - - - - κοινό
- - - - ά ών ά ά δεσμά
'ο 'ου 'ο 'ο 'ων μήλο
'ο 'ου 'ο 'ο - - - - ριζότο
- - - - 'ων ρέστα
'-ο '-ου '-ο '-ο -'α '-ων '-α '-α χαμόγελο
'-ο '-ου '-ο '-ο - - - - κουράγιο
- - - - -'α '-ων '-α '-α φάλαρα
'-ο 'ου '-ο '-ο '-α 'ων '-α '-α παράπονο
'-ο 'ου '-ο '-ο - - - - αλουμίνιο
- - - - '-α 'ων '-α '-α γενέθλια
'-ο 'ου/'-ου '-ο '-ο '-α 'ων/'-ων '-α '-α φάρμακο
'-ο 'ου/'-ου '-ο '-ο - - - - μάραθο
- - - - '-α 'ων '-α '-α απόβλητα
μα 'μα 'ματος 'μα 'μα 'ματα μάτων 'ματα 'ματα γράμμα
'-μα '-ματος '-μα '-μα 'ματα μάτων 'ματα 'ματα μήνυμα
- - - - 'ματα μάτων 'ματα 'ματα χαιρετίσματα
α ΄ατος/'ακτος '-τα άκτων '-τα '-τα γάλα
ιμο 'ιμο ίματος 'ιμο 'ιμο ίματα (ιμάτων) ίματα ίματα δέσιμο
ι ί ιού ί ί ιά ιών ιά ιά κλειδί
ίου 'ια ίων 'ια 'ια μίλι
- 'ια - 'ια 'ια παιδάκι
- - - - - κρυφτούλι
ιού 'ια ιών 'ια 'ια αστέρι
ιού - - - - καϊμάκι
ον όν όντος όν όν όντα όντων όντα όντα παρελθόν
'ον 'οντος 'ον 'ον 'οντα 'οντων 'οντα 'οντα μέλλον
ος 'ος 'ους 'ος 'ος ών βάρος
'ος 'ους 'ος 'ος - θάρρος
'ος 'ους 'ος 'ος - - - - χάος
'-ος 'ους '-ος '-ος ών μέγεθος
ός ότος ός ός ότα ότων ότα ότα γεγονός
υ uού 'uα uών 'uα 'uα στάχυ
ας 'ας 'ατος 'ας 'ας 'ατα άτων 'ατα 'ατα πέρας
ως* ώς ώτος ώς ώς ώτα ώτων ώτα ώτα καθεστώς
'ως '-ωτoς 'ως 'ως - - - - ημίφως

Following table shows several neuter words, derived from Ancient Greek, which are not recorded in the above scheme:

word-
ending
singular plural example
1st case 2nd case 4th case 5th case 1st case 2nd case 4th case 5th case
αν ν τος ν ν 'ντα 'ντών 'ντα 'ντα παν
άν άντος άν άν άντα άντων άντα άντα συμβάν
'αν '-αντος 'αν 'αν 'άντα άντων 'άντα 'άντα σύμπαν
εν έν έντος έν έν έντα έντων έντα έντα ανακοινωθέν
έν ενός έν έν - - - - μηδέν
'εν 'εντος 'εν 'εν 'εντα έντων 'εντα 'εντα φωνήεν
ρ ρ ός ρ ρ ά ών ά ά πυρ
'-τος '-τα 'των '-τα '-τα ήπαρ
  • It is necessary to classify nouns by the syllable of the stress in the nominatieve (1st case) singular.
  • These feminine nouns are, the same as in the masculine and neuter categories, as follows:
  • oxytone, with the stress on the final syllable
  • paroxytone, with the stress on the penultimate (second syllable from the end).
  • proparoxytone, with the stress on the antepenultimate (third syllable from the end)
  • a type of nouns that always have the stress in the genitive (2nd case) plural on the final syllable, irrespective of whether they are oxytone, paroxytone, proparoxytone.
  • In this category the 2nd case singular gets, the same as with the male nouns on «ος», the ending «ου».
  • We distinguish two types whereas the first type, with the accent on the third last syllable (the antepenult) undergoes a shift to the second last syllable (the penult), in the 2nd case singular and plural. The accent remains on the same syllable of the second type, which has the accent on the last and second last syllables. This type includes words ending on «-άδικο», «-άρικο» and «-όπουλο» and many compound words.

The division between the nouns with the accent on the third last syllable with a fixed accent and those with an accent that shifts, has been slightly flexible. In formal texts the words might get the accent on the second last syllable in the 2nd case singular and plural. Some nouns are showing both types e.g. «αμύγδαλο» - almond, «ατμόπλοιο» - stoomschip, «βούτυρο» - butter, «-γόνατο» - knee, «ποδήλατο» - bicycle, en «πρόβατο» - sheep.

With formal use e.g. in technical wording and corporate information and notices, some words have in the 1st and 4th case the ending «-ον» like «άκρον» - extreme, summit, «ποίον» - character, nature, «ποσόν» - amount, quantity en «συνεργείον» - workshop.

  • This category has words with two syllable as «βήμα» - (foot)step and words with three or more syllables like «αποτέλεσμα» - result
  • The word-endings in the 2nd case singular and all plural cases are getting an extra syllable.
  • Consequently the 2nd case singular and the 1st and 4th case plural always get the accent on the third last syllable (the antepenult), whilst the 2nd case plural always gets the accent on the second last (the penult).
  • The 2nd case form of «γάλα», «γάλακτος» is more formal than «γάλατος». The 2nd case plural is seldom used.
  • The word «μέλι» - honey has the same pattern as «γάλα» with «μέλιτος» in the 2nd case singular, but has no plural forms and normally it follows the «-ι» pattern.
  • The nouns in this category are derived from verbs and indicate action.
  • The 1st case singular has always the accent on the antepenult and the words are ending on «-σιμο», «-ξιμο» or «-ψιμο».
  • The endings of the 2nd case singular and all cases plural follow the same accent pattern as abovementioned words on «-μα». The 2nd case plural however can be irregular with either an accent shift or not.
  • The accent remains on the last syllable throughout the inflection of the nouns ending on «-ί», understanding that the 1st, 4th and 5th cases singular are ending on «-ί» and the 2nd case singular on «-ού», whereas the 1st, 4th and 5th cases plural are ending on «-ά» and its 2nd case on «-ών».

The 2nd case of the word «πρωί» - morning is «πρωινού». The 1st and 4th cases plural are «πρωινά» and the 2nd case plural is «πρωινών».

Normally the word «ταξί» is uninflected, but sometimes forms as «ταξιά» are shown. These forms are not considered as standard.

  • The nouns with the ending on «-ι», without accent, are getting it on the second last syllable, with some exceptions. The accent is moving in the 2nd case singular and plural to the last syllable as «...ι-ού» and «...ι-ών».
  • The word «φίλντισι» - ivory is an exception, because it has no plural and the 2nd case singular is «φιλντισιού».
  • Diminutives on «-άκι» en «-ούλι» have no 2nd case singular and plural.
  • In this category words are to be found, derived from the neuter forms of a participle, e.g. «ενδιαφέροντας»
  • When the last syllable of a word in the first case is emphasized like f.i. on «-όν», the accent remains thoughout the inflection on the same letter. In the 2nd case singular however «-τος» is added as well as «-τα» in the 1st, 4th and 5th cases plural, whereas «-των» is added in the 2nd case plural.
  • The same additives are applied when the word has the accent in the 1st case singular on the second last syllable (the penult). The emphasis remains throughout the inflection again on the same letter with the exception of the 2nd case plural, that will have an accent shift like «-όντων» instead of «-οντων».
  • In this category are words with the accent on the penult and the antepenult.
  • In the first occasion the accent shifts in the 2nd case plural to the last syllable.
  • In the second occasion the accent also shifts in the 2nd case plural to the last syllable.
  • That's not all because the accent also shifts in the 2nd case singular and in the 1st and 4th case plural.
  • The fith case (the vocative) is seldom used in this category.
 

N.B.

The stem of the word «γεγονός» - event in de categorie «-ος» in above scheme, is ending on «-ό». At the back of the stem «-τος» is added in the 2nd case singular and «-τα» in the 1st, 4th and 5th cases plural, whereas «-των» is added in the 2nd case plural without a shift of the accent

  • Some nouns have still the ending «-υ», though nowadays the spelling with «-ι» is often used.

The word «βράδυ» - evening is always used with an «-ι», because the 2nd case singular is «βραδιού» and the 2nd case plural is «βραδιών».

The word «δάκρυ» - tear is inflected in the 2nd case singular as «δακρύου» or «δάκρυου» with the indication that this case is hardly used. The 2nd case plural is «δακρύων». The other forms singular and plural remain as in the example «στάχυ» .

The following neuter nouns with the word-ending «-υ» are not mentioned in the above scheme:

οξύ - acid
case article ενικός case article πληθυντικός
1st case το οξύ 1st case τα οξέα
2nd case του οξέος 2nd case των οξέων
4th case το οξύ 4th case τα οξέα
5th case - οξύ 5th case - οξέα
Enkele voorbeelden met «οξύ»
ελληνικά αγγλικά
Προσοχή, πάντα πρόσθεσε οξύ σε νερό, ποτέ νερο σε οξύ! Caution, always add acid to water never add water to acid!
Μπόρεις να προστεθεί στo φαγητό αλάτι, ελαιόλαδο, κιτρικό οξύ ή χυμός λεμονιού. You can add salt, olive oil, citric acid or lemon juice to the food.
ήμισυ - half
case article ενικός case article πληθυντικός
1st case το ήμισυ 1st case τα -
2nd case του ημίσεος 2nd case των -
4th case το ήμισυ 4th case τα -
5th case - ήμισυ 5th case - -
Ecamples with «ήμισυ»
ελληνικά αγγλικά
H αρχή είναι το ήμισυ του παντός. A good start is half the work.
Το τραπέζι είναι περίπου τρία και ημίσυ μέτρα μακρύ. The table is about three and a half feet long.
  • In the 2nd case singular the last «-ς» disappears and by adding «-τος» an extra syllable is formed, whereas the accent remains on the first syllable.
  • The same applies for the plural in which the last «-ς» changes into «-τα» and the accent remains where it is. In the 2nd case, however, the «-ς» changes into «-των» and the accent is moving to the second last syllable.
  • The nouns with the «-ως» -ending have preserved their Ancient Greek inflection.
  • In the 2nd case singular the last «-ς» disappears in order to get the stem of the word. At the back of the stem the syllables «-τος» (2nd case singular), «-τα» (1st, 4th, and 5th case plural) and «-των» (2nd case plural) are added (see quote below).
 

N.B.

The stem of the word «καθεστώς» - regime in the category «-ως» in above scheme, is ending on «-ώ». At the back of the stem «-τος» is added in the 2nd case singular and «-τα» in the 1st, 4th and 5th cases plural, whereas «-των» is added in the 2nd case plural without a shift of the accent.

* The irregular noun «φως» - licht is derived from the Katharevousa and is inflected a.f.:

case article ενικός case article πληθυντικός
1st case το φως 1st case τα φώτα
2nd case του φωτός 2nd case των φώτων
4th case το φως 4th case τα φώτα
5th case - φως 5th case - φώτα
Examples with «φως»:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
δίνω πράσινο φως σε κάτι ή κάποιον giving something or someone the green light
φέρνω κάτι στο φως bringing something to light or to reveal
έρχομαι στο φως coming to light or to arise
βεγγαλικά φώτα bengal lights
ευαίσθητος στο φως photosensitive
  • As we have seen above a few neuter nouns have endings on «-ον» and a few nouns on «-ν», a.o. on «-αν» and «-εν».
  • These words have been originated from Ancient Greek, likewise two words on «-ρ».
  • A few uninflectable neuter nouns ending on various consonants
 

* In all three groups of grammatical genders categories (masculine, feminine, neuter) nouns appear of which the 2nd case plural is missing. These are called gaps, which are related to the exceptional status of the 2nd case (the genitive) plural in the Greek accents system.

In MG are many inflection categories for nouns and to a certain extent the placing of the accent is predictable. But with these missing cases it is unclear and vague to the writer or speaker whether the stress remains or shifts. On that account in most cases the accusative is chosen in text and spoken language by making use of a preposition, even with nouns of which the 2nd case is not omitting.

N.B.

We distinguish in each of the three grammatical genders three cases viz the 1st case (the nominative), the 2nd case (the genitive) and the 4th case (the accusative). MG has also the 5th case (the vocative), which is used when someone or something is being accosted.

The word endings of the vocatives of the feminine and neuter nouns are the same as in the nominative and the accusative, but for the masculine nouns are different forms.

With the vocative no article is used.