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an image

Irene Droppert
Dutch - Modern Greek
Vlaardingen-The Netherlands

Old little farmers-house on Kapares, Agia Anna.

Cat with her kitten in the surroundings of Kapares.

en-
ding
singular Plural Example
1st
case
2nd
case
4th
case
5th
case
1st
case
2nd
case
4th
case
5th
case
ος ός ού ό έ οί ών ούς οί ουρανός *
ός ού ό έ - - - - γνωστικισμός
'ος 'ου 'ο 'οι 'ων 'ους 'οι φόβος
'ος 'ου 'ο - - - - Πόρος
'ος 'ους 'ος 'ος - - - - εύρος
'ος 'ου 'ο 'ο - - - - Αλέκος
'-ος '-ου '-ο '-ε '-οι '-ων '-ους '-οι καλόγερος
'-ος '-ου '-ο '-ε - - - - κορίανδρος
- - - - '-οι '-ων '-ους '-οι Άγγλοι
'-ος 'ου '-ο' '-ε '-οι 'ων 'ους '-οι δάσκαλος
'-ος 'ου '-ο '-ε - - - - Φεβρουάριος
'-ος '-ου/'ου '-ο '-ε '-οι '-ων/'ων '-ους/'ους '-οι σιδηρόδρομος
'-ος '-ου/'ου '-ο '-ε - - - - ζέφυρος
'-ος '-ου/'ου '-ο '-ε '-οι '-ων/ών '-ους/'ους '-οι παλιάνθρωπος
- - - - '-οι '-ων/'ων '-ους/'ους '-οι Πράσινοι
ας 'ας 'ες 'ων 'ες 'ες αγώνας
'ας 'ες ών 'ες 'ες μήνας
'ας - - - - Μορφέας
'-ας '-α '-α '-α '-ες '-ων '-ες '-ες αντίχειρας
'-ας '-α '-α '-α '-ες 'ων '-ες '-ες πίνακας
'-ας '-α '-α '-α '-ες - '-ες '-ες κάβουρας
'-ας '-α '-α '-α - - - - αγλέορας
άς ά ά ά άδες άδων άδες άδες γαλατάς
άς ά ά ά - - - - βορράς
'ας άδες άδων άδες άδες ρήγας
'-ας '-α '-α '-α άδες άδων άδες άδες μέρμηγκας
'ας 'ηδες 'ηδων 'ηδες 'ηδες αέρας
εας
ιας
έας έα/έως έα έα είς έων είς είς αποστολέας
'ιας 'ια 'ια 'ια 'ηδες 'ηδων 'ηδες 'ηδες πρεζάκιας
ης ής ή ή ή ές ών ές ές θαυμαστής
ής ή ή ή - - - - Ερμής
'ης 'ες ών 'ες 'ες αγρότης
'ης 'ες/άδες ών/άδων 'ες/άδες 'ες/άδες ράφτης
'ης 'ες/'ηδες ών/'ηδων 'ες/'ηδες 'ες/'ηδες ξενύχτης
'ης - - - - Μάρτης
ής ή ή ή είς ών είς είς συγγενής
'ης 'εις 'εων 'εις 'εις μάντης
ής ή ή ή άδες/ές άδων/ών άδες/ές άδες/ές βουτηχτής
ής ή ή ή ήδες ήδων ήδες ήδες μπεκρής
'ης 'ηδες 'ηδων 'ηδες 'ηδες μανάβης
'-ης '-η '-η '-η 'ηδες 'ηδων 'ηδες 'ηδες μάστορης
ες ές έ έ έ έδες έδων έδες έδες μεζές
'ες - - - - πουνέντες
ους ούς ού ού ού ούδες ούδων ούδες ούδες παππούς
ων ών ώνος ώνα ών ώνες ώνων ώνες ώνες αγών
'ων 'ωνος 'ωνα 'ων - - - - Ωρίων
'ων 'ονος 'ονα 'ων 'ονες όνων 'ονες 'ονες αυτόχθων
'ων 'οντος 'οντα 'ων 'οντες 'οντων 'οντες 'οντες μεσάζων
ωρ ωρ 'ορος όρα ώρ 'ορες όρων 'ορες 'ορες μέντωρ
  • It is necessary to classify nouns by the syllable of the stress in the nominatieve (1st case) singular.
  • These feminine nouns are, the same as in the masculine and neuter categories, as follows:
  • oxytone, with the stress on the final syllable
  • paroxytone, with the stress on the penultimate (second syllable from the end).
  • proparoxytone, with the stress on the antepenultimate (third syllable from the end)
  • a type of nouns that always have the stress in the genitive (2nd case) plural on the final syllable, irrespective of whether they are oxytone, paroxytone, proparoxytone.
  • The nouns with word-ending «-ος» are the biggest category. The groups nouns occurring herein have the accent on the last, the second last or the third last syllable. With inflection the stress can shift, depending on the number of syllables. In the first two groups the stress remains on the same syllable throughout the inflection.
  • In the last group two alternative forms are used, which are dependent on whether the stress shifts or stays on the same syllable with declension. The first type, with the stress staying on the same syllable throughout the declension includes generally the more recent forms, with mainly compound words, whilst the second type represents the more conservative forms which are essential unchanged, originally remained from Ancient Greek and used in formal context.
  • With the last mentioned type the stress shifts from the third last to the second last syllable in the 2nd case (genitive) singular. The same occurs in the 2nd and 4th cases plural.

However, the difference between the two inflections is not often certain. Stylistically words without a shift belong to a lower level than those with a shift, so that the stress can shift particularly because of the style to where it should not be according to the rules and vice versa.

Hence nouns with the ending on the third last syllable sometimes have alternative forms for the 1st and the 5th case: «ανθρώποι» and «δασκάλοι»

Surnames with the «-ος» ending mostly maintain the accent on the same syllable, mostly in the 2nd case.When your name is for example «Γιάννης Γιαννακόπουλος» the 2nd case will be «του κυρίου Γιαννακόπουλου» the accent remains on the same syllable. But in a formal way the accent shifts to the second last syllable: «του κυρίου Ιωάννη Γιαννακοπούλου». In the 2nd case of feminine surnames the shift is obliged.

Instead of the normally used ending «-ε» in the 5th case some specific nouns have an «-ο», such as:

  • usual names like Νίκο, Αλέκο and Πέτρο, and the surnames Ρεντζέλο, Σγουρό and Λεκάκο.
  • other usual names with an «-ε» like «Αθανάσιε», «Θεόδωρε» and «Χριστέ» and the surnames «Παπαδόπουλε», «Σταυρε» and «Σολομέ»
  • certain common names of two syllables e.g.: «γέρε» = old man from «γέρος», «γιατρέ» = doctor from «γιατρός» and «Θεέ» = God from «Θεός»
  • diminutives on «-άκος» such as «φιλαράκε» = little friend from «φιλαράκος» and «γεράκε» = oldie from «γέρος»
 

* ο Ουρανός = Uranus

De first seven declension patterns of «ας»:
  • The syllables of the plural remain equal to the number in the singular.
  • This group includes:
  • The type with the accent in the 2nd case plural on the penultimate syllable. These are words with the stress in the 1st case singular a) on the second last syllable and b) on the third last syllable, with the effect that with the a-words the stress stays on the penultimate and with b-words it shifts to the penultimate syllable.
  • The type with the accent in the 2nd case plural on the last syllable. These words are derived from Ancient Greek, and since newer forms have been arisen, here also occur words without a shift of the stress in the plural.
Note:
  • Some nouns with the accent on the antepenult (third last sullable) may get the plural ending on «-οι» and in the 4th case on «-ους». The stress shifts to the second last syllable e.g. «μάστορας» - craftsman, is in the fist case plural «οι μαστόροι» or just «οι μάστορες», in the 2nd case «των μαστορών» or just «των μαστόρων» and in the 4th case «τους μαστόρους» or just «τους μάστορες»
  • Sometime forms, derived from the katharevousa, in the 2nd case singular and ending on «-ος» occur, especially in erudite and scientific language.
Examples
  • «πατρός» (scientific) instead of «ρατέρα» - (2nd case of father)
  • «ανδρός» (poetic) «αντρός» (scientific) instead of «άντρα» - (2nd case of man)
  • «μηνός» (often in dates) instead of «μήνα» - (2nd case of month)
The last five in declension patterns of «ας»:
  • Get an extra syllable in plural.
  • With «ας» this means that «-αδες» is added and in very rare occasions «-ηδες», such as with «αέρας»
  • Consequently the plural endings in the 1st, 4th and 5th cases are always on «-δες» and in the 2nd case on «-δων».
  • In the 1st case singular the accent may be on the last or second last syllable.
  • Apart from a few exceptions the stress generally does not shift.

  • The type noun ending on «έας» is inflected the same way as the type on «ας», but get «είς» and «εών» in plural.
  • Some of the words on «εας» have two endings in the 2nd singular case viz: «-έα» or «-έως».
  • Many of those nouns are professions and employments of common gender, i.e. the forms for masculine and feminine are the same. Only the article or an additional adjective is declined. In a particular context will be clear whether we are dealing with masculine or feminine forms
  • The type noun ending on «-άκιας» are getting «-άκηδες» in plural by which the «-ι» is omitted.

  • The first four declension patterns of «ης» include the most nouns with the same inflection pattern of which in plural the stress shifts to the ultimate «-ών» and whereas both singular and plural have the same amount of syllables.
  • The accent of the first two patterns, in the singular 1st case, is on the last syllable and of the last two patterns on the second last syllable.
  • Some words of this group have an altenative 5th case after the word «κύριε», such as «κύριε καθηγητά» Mr. professor.
  • The ending «-αι», comes from Ancient Greek and is sometimes used in the plural 1st case e.g.: «οι βουλευταί» members of the government and «οι φοιτηταί» students, as well as «-ου» in the singular 2nd case such as «του καθηγητού» and «-ας» in the 4th plural case such as «τους καθηγητάς»
  • A choice can be made whether surnames ending on «-δης» and «-της» get only «-η» in the singular 2nd case or «-ου». Mostly «-ου» is used for feminine surnames endings e.g. «Παυλίδου» and «Ανδρεάδου» .
  • Nouns ending on «-ής» (singular) and on «-είς» (plural) are from origin substantively used adjectives on «ής» and «ές», generally of common gender.
  • A small group of these words is getting «-εων» instead of «-ων» in the 2nd case plural.
The last declension patterns of «ης»:
  • get an extra syllable in plural.
  • This means that «-ηδες» is added and in very rare occasions «-αδες».
  • Consequently the plural endings in the 1st, 4th and fifth cases are always on «-δες» and in the 2nd case on «-δων».
  • Generally the plural has no shift of stress with the exception of these nouns where the accent shifts to the second last syllable in plural.
Note:
  • Some nouns, mainly with the accent on the penultimate syllable have alternative forms for the 1st and 2nd plural cases, ending on resp. «-άδες» and «-άδων» (including shift of stress) e.g. «αφέντης» master - lord, master is in the plural «αφεντάδες» or «αφέντες» and «δεσπότης» bishop is in the plural «δεσποτάδες».
  • When this latter word is inflected in the normal way as «δεσπότες» the meaning of it is despots. By adding «-άδες» to words with a respectful meaning an humorous or depreciative effect is triggered, for example the translation of «καθηγητάδες» is professors, but also profs
  • Nouns ending on «-ούς» (singular) and «-ούδες» (plural) are very rare. These are words which get an extra syllable (as wel as the previous words in the plural on «-αδες», «-ηδες» and «-έδες»), with the accent on the penultimate (second last) syllable.
  • Nouns on «ων» and «ωρ» are obsolete words from the Katheravousa, which only occur in the scientific and formal language.
  • Mostly new words exist in MG, such as:
  • αγώνας - struggle, game
  • αυτοκράτορας - emperor
  • αυτόχθονας - autochthonous
  • βουβώνας - groin
  • βραχίονας - arm
  • γείτονας - neighbor
  • γέροντας - old man
  • κανόνας - rule, order
  • κυκεώνας - hotchpotch, mixture, jumble
  • μέλλοντας - future
  • μέντορας - mentor, advisorr
  • μονοκράτορας - absolute ruler, monocrat

A few notes:
  • Certain scientific forms of the 1st case singular occur every now and then in formal contexts such as:
  • «αγών» (2nd analogous case «αγώνος» - struggle)
  • «Έλλην» (2nd analogous case «Έλληνος» - Greek)
  • «κήρυξ» (2nd analogous case «κήρυκος» - hero)
  • «μάρτυς» (2nd analogous case «μάρτυρος» - witness instead of the usual «μάρτυρας»)
  • «γίγας» (2nd analogous case «γίγαντος» - giant instead of the usual «γίγαντας»)
  • A lot of masculine nouns with an extra syllable in the plural are derived from other langauges, by name from Turkish.
  • The following proper names occur in this category with endings on «-άς», «-ης», and «-ής»:
  • Λουκάς
  • Βασίλης
  • Παντελής
Many words are indicating:
  • professions with an ending on «-άς»
  • enlarged words with an ending on «-άς»
  • diminutival words with the endings on «-άκης» and «-ούλης»

* In all three groups of grammatical genders categories (masculine, feminine, neuter) nouns appear of which the 2nd case plural is missing. These are called gaps, which are related to the exceptional status of the 2nd case (the genitive) plural in the Greek accents system.

In MG are many inflection categories for nouns and to a certain extent the placing of the accent is predictable. But with these missing cases it is unclear and vague to the writer or speaker whether the stress remains or shifts. On that account in most cases the accusative is chosen in text and spoken language by making use of a preposition, even with nouns of which the 2nd case is not omitting.

N.B.
  • We distinguish in each of the three grammatical genders three cases viz the 1st case (the nominative), the 2nd case (the genitive) and the 4th case (the accusative). MG has also the 5th case (the vocative), which is used when someone or something is being accosted.
  • The word endings of the vocatives of the feminine and neuter nouns are the same as in the nominative and the accusative, but for the masculine nouns are different forms.
  • With the vocative no article is used.