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Tenses - moods Active voice
Indicative mood Singular Plural
Present έχω έχουμε, έχομε
έχεις έχετε
έχει έχουν(ε)
Imperfect είχα είχαμε
είχες είχατε
είχε είχαν(ε)
Aorist (simple past)
Perfect
Pluperfect
Future (continuous) θα έχω θα έχουμε, θα έχομε
θα έχεις θα έχετε
θα έχει θα έχουν(ε)
Future (simple)
Future Perfect
Subjunctive mood
Present να έχω να έχουμε, να έχομε
να έχεις να έχετε
να έχει να έχουν(ε)
Aorist
Perfect
Imperative mood
Present έχε έχετε
Aorist
Participle
Present έχοντας
Perfect
Infinitive
Aorist

«έχω» is a irregular verb of which only the present is regular. It is used as an auxiliary verb by forming the perfect tenses, just as «είμαι» - to be. It does not have perfect tenses, no passive voice and second stem itself. Consequently it has no aspect difference.

Examples with «έχω» as a verb:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Έχει μεγάλη περιουσία. He/She has a big fortune.
2Είχε την τελευταία λέξη. He/she had the final say.
3Άρχισε να βρέχει, έχεις ομπρέλα; It started to rain, do you have an umbrella?
4Tο σπίτι έχει πέντε δωμάτια. The house has five rooms.
5Oι λέξεις έχουν μία, δύο ή περισσότερες συλλαβές. Words have one, two or more syllables.
6Έχει τον άντρα της στο νοσοκομείο. Her husband is in the hospital (lit. She has her husband in the hospital).
7Tις οικονομίες μου τις έχω στην τράπεζα. I have my savings on the bank(lit. My savings those I have on the bank).
8Δεν το έχει για τίποτα, αν ζοριστεί να φύγει. It is not nothing like one is forced to leave.
9Προβλέπουν ότι θα έχουμε σεισμούς They predict that we will have earthquakes.
10Δεν έχεις να του δώσεις τίποτε You should not give him anything.
  • The sentences 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are in the present tense of the indicative. In sentence 6 «έχω» is used with the meaning of to find oneself somewhere.
  • Sentence 2 is in the imperfect tense
  • Sentence 9 is in the (continuous) future (without aspect)
  • Sentence 10 is in present tense where «έχω» is used with the meaning to have to en to be necessary.
Examples with «έχω» as an auxiliary verb:
ελληνικά αγγλικά
1Έχω πιει τρεις καφέδες από το πρώι. I drank three coffees ever since this morning.
2Είχα κιόλας αναχωρήσει στις εννέα το πρώι. I had been left as early as nine o'clock in the morning.
3Έχει ζαλιστεί από το ταξίδι. He became dizzy from the trip.
4Το ταξίδι τον έχει ζαλίσει. The journey has made​ him dizzy.
5Είχε βαρεθεί να περιμένει τόσο πολύ καιρό. He was getting tired by waiting so long.
6Θα σου το έχουν στείλει. They will have sent it to you.
7Να είχαμε κερδίσει το λαχείο! If we had only won the lottery!
8Ας έχουν βγει επιτέλους τα αποτελέσματα! Let them finally bring out the results!
9Όταν ήρθες, έχω φύγει. When you came, I left.
10Δεν θα είχα φύγει, αν είχες έρθει νωρίς. I would not have left if you had come early.

The perfect tenses are in MG not quite as common as in English. They are formed by using the auxiliary verb «έχω» - to have. They are only used when a situation, indicating by the verb, takes place in the present, though the action or event happened in the past. We are dealing here with an aspect expressing the result of a situation.

  • The sentences 1, 3, and 4 are in the perfect (present) tense, The voices of the verb are passive in sentence 3 «ζαλίζομαι» - to become dizzy and active in sentence 4 «ζαλίζω» - to be dizzy.
  • The sentences 2 and 5 are in the plusperfect.
  • Sentence 6 is in the future perfect tense.
  • Sentence 7 is expressing an unfulfilled wish by the use of the particle «να». Together with the verb «κερδίζω» - to win, to earn «έχω» has been conjugated in the 1st person plural of the perfect (past) tense.
  • In sentence 8 the verb «βγαίνω» - come/get out, come off and the auxiliary verb «έχω» are expressing an incitement by using the particle «ας» and the conjugation in the perfect (present) tense.
  • In sentence 9 the speaker is telling a story in the present whilst the event took place in the past, resulting in a perfect tense for the subordinate clause.
  • The same is true for sentence 10 wherein the main clause is in the perfect future past tense and the subordinate clause in the perfect (past) tense.